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A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupādasee: Śrīla Prabhupāda

ābhāsa — a shadow.

Abhay — Lit., “fearless.” The name given to Śrīla Prabhupāda at birth.

Abhaya — one of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

abhidheya — the regulated activities of the soul for reviving his relationship with the Lord; devotional service.

 abhidheya — The stage of performing regulated activities to revive one’s relationship with the Lord.

abhijña — Self-knowing, or fully cognizant.

abhimāna — False identification with a material body.

Abhimanyu — The only son of Arjuna and Subhadrā. He was a promising heir to the Kuru dynasty but died in the Battle of Kurukṣetra while still in his teens. He left his widow, Uttarā, pregnant with Parīkṣit.

Abhimanyu — the heroic son Arjuna and Subhadrā. He was killed by the Son of Duḥśāsana. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

 abhiras — A degraded tribe of nomadic cowherds. The gopas of Vraja are sometimes disparagingly called Abhiras even though they are actually proper vaiśyas.

abhiṣeka — A ceremonial bath performed in the worship of a Deity or the coronation of a king.

abhiṣeka — a bathing ceremony, particularly for the coronation of a king or the installation of the Lord's Deity form.

Absolute Truth — the ultimate source of all energies.

Acala — a brother of Śakuni. He was killed by Arjuna. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

ācamana — Purification by water and mantra.

ācamana — a ritual of purification in which one sips water and simultaneously chants names of the Supreme Lord.

ācārya — One who teaches by personal example. Ācāryas in the pure Vaiṣṇava line instruct people and initiate them into the Supreme Lord’s devotional service.

ācārya — a spiritual master who teaches by his own example, and who sets the proper religious example for all human beings.

acchā — A common Hindi expression meaning, “I see,” or, “Is that so?”

acchha — good, ok, all right.

acintya — Inconceivable.

acintya — inconceivable.

acintya-bhedābheda-tattva — Lord Caitanya’s “simultaneously one and different” doctrine, which establishes the inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference of the Lord and His expansions.

acintya-śakti — Inconceivable potency.

Acintya-śakti — the inconceivable energy of the Supreme Lord.

acit — the inert material nature; without life or consciousness

acyuta — Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu, “who never falls.”

Acyuta — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can never fall down from His position.

Acyutāyus — he fought on the side of Duryodhana. He and his brother Śrutāyus were killed by Arjuna. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

adbhuta-rasa — the indirect relationship of wonder or amazement.

ādeśa-kārī — the actions resulting from sinful activities.

adhama paḍuyās — degraded scholars who consider devotional activities material.

adhama — the lowest among men.

adharma — irreligion.

ādhibautika — (-kleśa) Miseries caused by other living entities.

adhibhautika — (misery) caused by other living beings.

ādhibhautika-kleśa — miseries inflicted by other living entities.

adhibhūtam — the physical nature.

Adhidaivatam — the universal form of the Supreme Lord.

adhidaivic powers — the administrative functions delegated by the Lord to demigods, such as control over rain, wind and sun.

adhidaivika — (misery) caused by nature.

ādhidaivika-kleśa — natural disturbances caused by the demigods.

ādhidhaivika — (-kleśa) Miseries caused by demigods (natural disasters, etc.).

 adhikāra — Qualification.

adhikārī — One who is qualified.

adhikārī — one who knows the science of Kṛṣṇa and is engaged in His service.

adhīra — One who is not sober or whose senses are not controlled.

adhīra — restless ecstasy of love for Kṛṣṇa.

Adhiratha — foster father of Karṇa. He was a charioteer by profession. He one day found the child Karṇa floating in the Ganges in a basket. His wife was barren and happily he took the child home and gave it to his wife.

adhirūḍha — an advanced symptom of mahā-bhāva found only in the gopīs.

Adhiyajña — the Supersoul, the plenary expansion of the Lord in the heart of every living being.

adhokṣaja — A name of Lord Viṣṇu, meaning “He who is beyond the reach of the material senses.”

Adhokṣaja — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beyond material sense perception, who is not perceivable by impure material senses.

adhyātma-cetasā — one who depends solely on Kṛṣṇa.

 adhyātmic — Anglicized derivative of the Sanskrit word adhyātmika, “miseries caused by one’s own body and mind.”

adhyātmika — (-kleśa) Miseries caused by one’s own body and mind.

ādhyātmika — miseries arising from one’s own body and mind.

adhyātmika — (misery) caused by one’s own body and mind.

ādi-guru — The first spiritual master of a disciplic succession.

ādi-līla — Initial pastimes, such as the first twenty-four years of Lord Caitanya’s pastimes; the portion of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta recounting those pastimes.

Ādi-līlā — the first twenty-four years of Lord Caitanya’s pastimes.

Ādi-puruṣa — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, the original person.

Aditi — Dakṣa’s oldest daughter, a wife of Kaśyapa. She gave birth to twelve sons, including the eleven principal demigods (such as Sūrya, Varuṇa, and Indra) and the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Vāmana.

Aditi — the mother of the demigods.

Ādityas — Aditi’s twelve sons: Sūrya, Aryamā, Pūṣā, Tvaṣṭā, Savitā, Bhaga, Dhātā, Vidhātā, Varuṇa, Mitra, Indra, and Lord Vamana. They rule the universe as the principal demigods during the period of the current Manu, Vaivasvata.

Ādityas — the demigods who are descendants of Kaśyapa Muni’s wife, Aditi.

Advaita Prabhusee: Advaitācārya.

advaita — nondual; without differentiation.

advaita-siddhānta — the conclusion of the monists, namely, that the Absolute Truth and the individual living entity are separate in the material state, but that when they are spiritually situated there is no difference between them.

advaita-vāda — the philosophy of absolute oneness taught by Śaṅkarācārya, and whose conclusion is advaita-siddhānta.

Advaita-vādīs — Proponents of the impersonal philosophy of “oneness,” which claims that the Absolute Truth, one without a second, is ultimately formless and that whatever has name and form is an illusion falsely imposed on that impersonal Absolute Truth. See Māyāvādīs.

Advaita-vādīs — atheistic philosophers who say all distinctions are but material illusions. See also: Māyāvādīs

Advaitācārya — an incarnation of Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu, who appeared as one of the four principal associates of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

advaitin — A follower of the teaching.

Āgamas — See tantras.

Āgamas — authorized Vedic literatures; also, specifically the Pañcarātras.

Agastya Muni — a great sage who authored many Vedic hymns and writings on Āyurvedic medicine. The son of Mitra and Varuṇa, he was born from a water jar. Once he swallowed the ocean and forced the Vindhya mountain range to prostrate itself before him.

agastya — the mind.

Agha — (-asura) A demon who assumed the form of a huge python, swallowed Kṛṣṇa and the cowherd boys, but was killed by Kṛṣṇa.

aghana — transcendental bliss that is incomplete (lit. “not concentrated”).

Āgneyāstra — a powerful weapon belonging to the demigod Agni. Arjuna received this weapon from his preceptor, Droṇa.

Agni — The principal demigod who rules fire.

Agni — the demigod who controls fire. He took the form of a brāhmaṇa and begged charity from Lord Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. He then consumed the Khāṇḍava forest.

agnihotra — The first and simplest Vedic fire sacrifice, to be performed daily at sunrise and sunset by initiated brāhmaṇas. It is also a subsidiary ritual within each of the more complex sacrifices (yajñas). Often the term agnihotra is used to indicate fire sacrifices in general.

Agnihotra-yajña — the ceremonial fire sacrifice offered to the demigod Agni performed in Vedic rituals.

Agnistoma — a sacrifice performed by a person who wants go to heaven. A minimum of sixteen priests are required for this sacrifice, which lasts five days.

Agrahāyaṇa — a name for the month of Mārgaśirṣa (November/December). In contemporary Vaiṣṇavism it is known as the month of Keśava.

aguruAquilaia agallocha, a large evergreen tree with fragrant wood. An auspicious fragrance derived from the wood of the aloe tree (not the same as Aloe vera).

ahaitukī — without cheating motivation.

ahaṁ brahmāsmi — Sanskrit for “I am spirit.”

ahaṁ brahmāsmi — the Vedic aphorism “I am spirit.”

ahaṁ māmeti — the false conception of “I” and “mine [SB 5.5.8].”

ahaṅgraha-upāsanā — a Māyāvādī’s worship of his own body as the Supreme; self-worship in general.

ahaṅkāra — False ego, the first and most subtle of the separated elements of material creation. By its influence, conditioned souls assume temporary material identities.

ahaṅkāra — false ego, by which the soul misidentifies with the material body.

ahiṁsa — Nonviolence.

ahiṁsā — nonviolence.

Airāvata — The elephant who carries Lord Indra. Airāvata appeared from the churning of the Milk Ocean and has four tusks and seven trunks.

aiśvarya — majesty, opulence.

aiśvarya-jñāna-yukta — emotion with an understanding of the Lord’s full opulences.

Aiśvarya-līlā — the Lord’s pastimes of opulence.

Aja — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is unborn.

ājagara-vṛtti — the occupation of a python.

ajam — unborn.

Ajāmila — A brāhmaṇa whose attraction to a prostitute led him into sinful life but who was saved by his deathbed cries for his son Nārāyaṇa, cries that brought the messengers of Lord Nārāyaṇa to stop those of Yamarāja from dragging him to hell.

Ajāmila — a fallen brāhmaṇa who was saved from hell by unintentionally chanting the Lord’s name at the time of death.

Ajita — the Supreme Lord who is unconquerable.

Ajña — a description of Kṛṣṇa indicating that nothing is unknown to Him.

ajñāta-sukṛti — pious or devotional activity performed accidentally, without knowledge of its effect.

ajowan seeds — tiny, light-brown spice seeds closely related to caraway and cumin with a very strong, thyme and oregano flavour. Ajowan, Carum ajowan is used in many North Indian savoury dishes, especially in fried snacks. Ajowan aids digestion and is to relieve stomach problems. The seeds keep indefinitely are available from Indian Middle Eastern grocers.

akāma-bhakta — one who serves the Lord without material motive.

akarma (naiskarma) — action for which one suffers no reaction because it is performed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness; free from material desire; one who is desireless.

ākāśa — sky.

Akhila-rasāmṛta-mūrti — Kṛṣṇa, the transcendental form of attraction for all kinds of devotees.

akiñcana — without material desires.

akiñcana — one who possesses nothing in the material world.

Akiñcana-gocara — Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is easily approached by those who are materially exhausted.

Akrūra — A distant relative whom Kṛṣṇa considered His uncle and who on Kaṁsa’s order brought Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma from Vraja to Mathurā.

Akrūra — an uncle of Lord Kṛṣṇa

akṣara — Lit., “imperishable,” refers to the Supreme Lord.

akṣauhiṇī — a military division consisting of 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 109,350 infantrymen and 65,610 horsemen.

Ākūti — one of Svāyambhuva Manu’s three daughters and the wife of Ruci.

Ālabandāru — The Tamil name of Yamunācārya. See Yamunā (-ācārya).

Alakāpurī — the residence ot Kuvera, the treasurer of the demigods. It sits on a peak in the Himālayas.

Alambuṣa — a Rākṣasa who was killed by Ghaṭotkaca. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

ālasya — laziness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Alāyudha — a Rākṣasa who fought on the side of Duryodhana. He was killed by Ghaṭotkaca. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

alfalfa sprouts — the nutritional content of the seeds of the perennial plant Medicado sativa, alfalfa, is increased dramatically when they are sprouted. Alfalfa sprouts contain 40% protein and are very high in vitamins A, B, and C, as well as B vitamins, and the vitamins K and U. Alfalfa sprouts also contain good amounts of sodium, potassium, sulphur, phosphorus, and magnesium. The high nutrition, as well as the mild, slightly sweet flavour of alfalfa sprouts make them a popular salad ingredient.

Alolupa — a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

alu — potato

Alwars — Tamil Nadu saints who were devotees of Lord Viṣṇu.

Amala-purāṇa — lit., “spotless Purāṇa” ; refers to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Āmalakī — a tree that Nārada Muni brought from the spiritual world to the material realm to please the Supreme Lord. Its fruits are very rich in vitamin C.

Āmānī — food that is not offered to Lord Jagannātha.

amarakośa — a Sanskrit dictionary and thesaurus widely used in the teaching of Sanskrit.

amarāvatī — the capital city of Lord Indra's heavenly abode. It has the power of greatly extending the life span of its residents.

amarṣa — anger, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

amātya — the governor of the senses, the mind.

Amāvasyā — the dark-moon night, or the night of the new moon, when various sacrifices are offered to both demigods and demons.

Ambā — Older sister of Ambikā and Ambālikā and daughter of the King of Kāśi. She was abducted by Bhīṣma during her svayaṁvara, but she wanted to marry Śālva. She did penance to please Lord Śiva and she received a benediction she could take birth in her next life as a son of King Drupada. (Ādi Parva in Mahābhārata)

Ambālikā — Youngest of the daughters of the King of Kāśi. She was married to Vicitravīrya. When Vicitravīrya died early, she begot Pāṇḍu by the great sage Vyāsa. (Ādi Parva in Mahābhārata)

Ambarīṣa Mahārāja — a great devotee-king who perfectly executed all nine devotional practices (hearing, chanting, etc.).

Ambarīṣa — A saintly Vaiṣṇava king famous for using all his resources and bodily activities in devotional service to the Supreme Lord. Angered by a minor accidental fault of the king’s, the sage Durvāsā tried to kill him, but Lord Viṣṇu sent the Sudarśana disc to attack Durvāsā, who finally had to beg the king’s forgiveness.

Ambikā — Second daughter of the King of Kāśi. She married Vicitravīrya. Later when Vicitravīrya died, she begot Dhṛtarāṣṭra by the great sage Vyāsa. (Ādi Parva in Mahābhārata)

amchoor — a tan coloured powder made from grinding small sun-dried green mangoes. Amchoor is used in North Indian dishes to give a slightly sour, pungent taste. It is a predominant flavour in the spice blend called chat masala and is available at all Indian grocery stores.

amṛta — The “nectar of immortality” that demigods in Svarga drink to give them fabulously long lives.

amṛta — immortal nectar.

amṛta-guṭikā — a thick purī (fried flatbread) mixed with condensed milk.

amṛtatva — eternal life.

Aṁśa — an expansion of the Supreme Lord.

Aṁśāveśa — partial incarnations of God.

āmukha — technical term for a drama’s introduction, further classified into five kinds.

anādi — since time immemorial.

anamra — one who offers obeisances to no one.

ānanda — Bliss or happiness.

ānanda — spiritual, transcendental bliss.

Ānandamaya — full of bliss in spiritual realization; Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Ananta — (Ananta Śeṣa, Śeṣa Nāga) 1. An expansion of God who appears as a serpent with thousands of heads and who serves as the bed of Lord Viṣṇu. Ananta Śeṣa holds all the planets of the universe on His hoods and constantly sings the glories of Viṣṇu from all His mouths. 2. Unlimited.

ananta — unlimited.

Ananta-caturdaśī — date of the yearly festival commemorating the passing away of Haridāsa Ṭhākura.

Ananta-Śeṣa — an incarnation of the Supreme Lord in the form of His thousand-headed serpent, on which Viṣṇu rests, and who sustains the planets on His hoods.

Anantavijaya — name of King Yudhiṣṭhira's conchshell.

anapekṣa — indifference to mundane people.

Anaranya — King of Iksvaku dynasty, killed by Ravana. When dying he cursed Ravana to be killed by Rama

anartha — Unwanted things; material desire.

anartha-nivṛtti — the cleansing of unwanted things from the heart.

anartha-nivṛtti — a stage in the progressive development of devotion to Lord Kṛṣṇa in which one is freed from unwanted desires and karmic reactions; cleansing the heart of all unwanted things

anavasara — period of a fortnight between bathing ceremony and Ratha-yātrā when the body of the Jagannātha Deity is repainted.

Āṇdal — one of the famous devotees, or Ālvārs, who lived in South India before Rāmānuja.

Āndhras — Residents of Andhra Pradesh, the province of southeastern India above Tamil Nadu.

Aṅga Mahārāja — the father of King Vena.

aṅga-rāga — repainting of the body of Lord Jagannātha.

Aṅgada — One of the leaders of the monkey army that helped Lord Rāmacandra defeat Ravana.

Aṅgirā Ṛṣi — one of the seven sages of the first Manvantara, all of whom were born directly from Lord Brahmā. One of the Prajāpatis, he is the author of the Vedic writings on astronomy.

angrezi — English. The term is extended in Vrndavan to mean ‘foreigner’.

anilāyāmaSee: Prāṇāyāma

aṇimā-siddhi — The yogic perfection of making oneself smaller than an atom.

aṇimā-siddhi — mystic power by which one can become as small as an atom so that he can enter into stone.

Aniruddha — A son of Pradyumna and grandson of Kṛṣṇa. Aniruddha’s eternal consort, Ūṣā, sequestered him in the palace of her father, Bāṇa, where Aniruddha was captured and had to be rescued by Kṛṣṇa, Balarāma, and the Yādava army. He appears in Dvārakā and Mathurā as the fourth of the original quadruple vyūha expansions of the Supreme Lord, and He again expands from Lord Nārāyaṇa in Vaikuṇṭha, in the second quadruple, as the ruler of intelligence.

Aniruddha — a grandson of Lord Kṛṣṇa; also one of the four original expansions of Lord Kṛṣṇa in the spiritual world.

anise seeds — the highly aromatic seeds of the annual herb Pimpinella anisum. These greenish-gray, slightly crescent-shaped seeds have a very strong licorice-like flavour and odour, although they are not related to the perennial plant of the pea family whose sweet roots are the source of true licorice. Although anise is generally used as a flavouring for drinks, sweets, and creams, it is delicious sauteed in ghee or oil and cooked in vegetable dishes such as Cabbage, Potato and Yogurt with Anise. Anise seeds are available at supermarkets and specialty stores.

anna — food grains.

anna-maya — According to the Taittirīya Upaniṣad, the lowest level of consciousness in embodied life, the level in which one lives just to eat.

Anna-prāśana — the ceremony of offering a child his first food grains; one of the ten purificatory saṁskāras.

annakūṭa — The ceremony of offering grains; may refer to the ceremony of offering grains to Govardhana Hill.

annamaya — (consciousness) absorbed only in food.

Annapurna — Durgā manifested in her form of supplier of food.

antaraṅga-sevā — service performed in one’s spiritual body.

Antardhāna — Vijitāśva, the eldest son of King Pṛthu.

antarikṣa — outer space.

Antaryāmī — the expansion of the Supreme Lord situated in everyone’s heart as Supersoul, the indwelling controller.

antipasto — a light starter or an appetizer served before an Italian meal. It can also be used as a light snack. Vegetables and salads (served raw or lightly cooked), make delicious antipasto, as do simple hot dishes, fried breads (crostini), or miniature pizzas.

antya-līlā — The last eighteen years of Lord Caitanya’s manifest pastimes; the portion of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta recounting those pastimes.

Antya-līlā — the last eighteen years of Lord Caitanya’s pastimes.

antyajas — an outcaste.

aṇu-atma — the minute spirit soul, who is part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa.

anubhāva — The ecstatic symptoms that follow from and increase one’s main relationship with Kṛṣṇa.

anubhāva — bodily symptoms manifested by a devotee in ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa.

anukara — imitating.

anurāga — subattachment in ecstatic love of God.

anurasa — second-class type of rasābhāsa, occurring when something is derived from the original mellow.

anusara — trying to follow in the footsteps.

anusūyā — the wig of Atri Muni, the sage among the demigods. She is the mother of three-headed Lord Dattātreya.

Anuvinda — a King of Avanti. He and his brother, Vinda, were the brothers of Mitravindā, who was married to Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Both brothers were inimical to Lord Kṛṣṇa and were killed by Arjuna. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam — Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī’s definition of pure devotional service as being free from any other desire than the desire to server Kṛṣṇa.

apāna-vāyu — one of the internal bodily airs which is controlled by the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system. The apāna-vāyu travels downwards.

aparā prakṛti — the inferior material energy of the Lord.

aparā vidyā — material knowledge

aparādha — An offense, especially against the Supreme Lord or His devotees.

aparādha — an offense.

Aparājita — one of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīmasena. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

aparasa — third-class type of rasābhāsa, occurring when something is appreciated that is far removed from the original mellow.

apasmāra — forgetfulness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

apauruṣeya — not made by man (that is, revealed by God).

apauruṣeya-śabda — knowledge from a divine source.

apavarga — liberation from pavarga, the miseries of material existence.

apavitra-anna — food that is unacceptable for a Vaiṣṇava.

aprakaṭa-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s “unmanifest pastimes,” which go on eternally in His abodes, all simultaneously, but are invisible except to rare, fortunate souls. In contrast, His prakaṭa, or “manifest,” pastimes are visible to the public but only at specific times in a linear sequence of events.

Aprakaṭa-līlā — the unmanifested pastimes of the Lord.

aprākṛta — Transcendental, beyond creation.

aprākṛta — spiritual, or antimaterial, transcendental to material nature.

aprameya — immeasurable.

apratihatā — uninterrupted.

Apsarā — a heavenly courtesan. The most beautiful women in the heavenly planets, who are expert at dancing.

Apsarās — The dancing girls of heaven, wives of Gandharvas, sometimes engaged by Indra to distract yogis from their meditations.

Āraṇyakas — The parts of the original Vedas that give more esoteric explanations than do the Brāhmaṇas. The Āraṇyakas are meant for renunciants to study in the forest (araṇya). The Upaniṣads are chapters of the Āraṇyakas that explain the philosophical essence of the Vedas.

ārati — A standard ceremony of worship with offerings of lamps, fans, incense, fiowers, bathing water, and other items. Its origin is the custom of greeting a guest to one’s home at night (ā-rātrikam) with a lamp.

ārati — a ceremony in which one greets and worships the Lord in the Deity form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by offering Him incense, a flame in a lamp with ghee-soaked wicks, a flame in a lamp containing camphor, water in a conchshell, a fine cloth, a fragrant flower, a peacock-feather, and yak-tail wisk, accompanied by bell-ringing and chanting.

aravinda — A species of lotus that blooms during the day and closes at night.

Aravindakṣa — a name of the Lord meaning one whose eyes are as beautiful as lotus petals.

arbuda-arbuda — various types of śravaṇa and kīrtana of the Supreme Lord’s name, quality, form and so on.

Arcā-mūrtiSee: Arcā-vigraha below.

arcā-vigraha — Deity (lit. “worshipable form”).

Arcā-vigraha — an authorized form of God manifested through material elements, as in a painting or statue of Kṛṣṇa worshiped in a temple or home. Actually present in this form, the Lord accepts worship from His devotees.

arcana — The process of Deity worship.

Arcana — the procedures followed for worshiping the arcā-vigraha, the Deity in the temple; engaging all the senses in the service of the Lord.

Arci — the wife of King Pṛthu.

ardha-bāhya — half-external consciousness.

arghya — Water mixed with auspicious substances and offered to an honored guest, either sprinkled on their head or offered into their hands.

arghya — a ceremonious offering, in a conchshell, of water and other auspicious items.

arhar dal — see: Toovar dal.

ari — impediments like disease.

Ariṣṭa — A demon who assumed the form of a bull, attacked Vraja, and was killed by Kṛṣṇa.

Ariṣṭāsura — a demon who took the form of a bull and tried to kill Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Arjama — the demigod in charge of Pitṛloka, the planet were qualified departed ancestors reside.

Ārjava — a brother of Śakuni who was killed by Irāvān. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

arjuna trees — Two trees of the arjuna species that stood in the courtyard of Nanda Mahārāja until Kṛṣṇa uprooted them. Formerly sons of Kuvera, they had been cursed to stand as trees until delivered by Kṛṣṇa.

Arjuna — The third of the five Pāṇḍava brothers. A great bowman, he figured prominently in winning the Kurukṣetra battle, with Kṛṣṇa driving his chariot. It was to Arjuna that Kṛṣṇa spoke the Bhagavad-gītā just before the battle.

Arjuna — the third son of Pāṇḍu and intimate friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa. After Pāṇḍu was cursed by a sage, Kuntī used a special mantra to beget children and called for the demigod Indra. By the union of Indra and Kuntī, Arjuna was born. In his previous life he was Nara, the eternal associate of Lord Nārāyaṇa. Kṛṣṇa became his chariot driver and spoke the Bhagavad-gītā to him on the battlefield of Kurukṣetra.

arka — A large-leafed plant whose leaves are used in sacred rituals.

arrowroot — a very fine white starch derived from the rootstock of the South American tropical plant Maranta arundinacea. Arrowroot is used much like cornflour in sauces, except that it is a non-grain flour and thickens at a lower temperature. It is also used as a binding agent. It is available at most supermarkets or grocers.

Ārṣṭiṣeṇa — The chief among the citizens of Kimpuruṣa-varṣa, who have bodies half human and half animal.

artha — Economic development, one of the four standard goals of human life.

artha — economic development.

artha-vāda — The statements of śruti that praise, encourage, or explain rather than enjoin ritual duties. The term is sometimes used perjoratively to indicate flowery praise that cannot be taken literally.

Aruṇa gems — rubies decorating Kṛṣṇa’s flute.

ārya — A civilized human being, one who lives according to the standards of the Vedic culture.

Aryamā — The chief of the departed forefathers residing in Pitaloka. He sometimes stands in for Yamarāja, the judge of the dead.

Aryamā — the demigod in charge of Pitṛloka, the planet where qualified departed ancestors reside.

Aryan — a follower of Vedic culture. A person whose goal is spiritual advancement. He truly knows the value of life and has a civilization based on spiritual realization.

Āryans — Persons living according to the cultured standards of Vedic civilization.

Āryāvarta — The “home of the Āryans,” comprising the part of India bounded by seas on the west and east, by the Himalaya Mountains on the north, and by the Vindhya Mountains on the south.

asafoetida — the aromatic resin from the root of the giant fennel, Ferula asafoetida. Asafoetida (also known as hing) is extracted from the stems of these giant perennial plants that grow wild in Central Asia. In the spring, when the plant is about to bloom, the stems and roots are cut. Milky resin exudes from the cut surface and is scraped off. More exudes as successive slices of root are removed over a period of 3 months. The gummy resin is sun-dried into a solid mass that is then sold in solid, wax-like pieces, or more conveniently, in powdered form. Due to the presence of sulphur compounds, asafoetida has a distinctive pungent flavour reminiscent of shallots or garlic. Used in minute quantities, it adds a delicious flavour to various savoury dishes. Use the mild Vandevi brand of yellow asafetida powder and not the grey variety. Asafoetida is available at Indian grocers.

āsakti — Attachment for Kṛṣṇa.

Asamanya — a king of the solar dynasty, son of Sagara, known for his cruelty.

asaṁskṛta — unreformed.

āsana — seat, or throne; a sitting posture in yoga practice.

āsanas — Postures assumed in yoga practice to purify the body and mind; a seat.

asāṅga — detachment from material consciousness.

asat — Temporary; without factual existence.

Asat — not eternal, temporary.

asat-saṅga — the association of nondevotees.

Ashoka — a king who spread Buddhism in India in the 3rd century BC.

Asita — an ancient authority on the Vedas.

aśoka grove — The garden where Rāvaṇa kept Sītādevī captive, guarded by Rākṣasīs.

aśokaSaraca indica. Blooming in early March, aśoka flowers are crimson and blossom in bunches. It is said to flower upon being touched by a beautiful woman’s feet.

aśoka — a tree with long, pointed leaves. Goddess Sītā was placed under an aśoka tree after being kidnapped by Rāvaṇa.

āśrama — 1. The hermitage of a sage or teacher. 2. One of the four stages of spiritual development in the varṇāśrama social system: brahmācarya (celibate student life), gṛhastha (marriage), vānaprastha (retirement), and sannyāsa (the renounced order).

Āśrama — one of the four spiritual orders of life — brahmacārī-āśrama, or student life; Gṛhasta-āśrama, or married life; vānaprastha, or retired life; and sannyāsa-āśrama, or the renounced order of life; the home of the spiritual master, a place where spiritual practices are executed.

āśraya — Shelter.

Āśraya — the Transcendence, who is the source and support of all; the worshiper.

Āśraya-vigraha — the manifestation of the Lord of whom one must take shelter.

aṣṭa-sāttvika — The eight-fold bodily transformations of ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa.

aṣṭa-siddhis — the eight mystic perfections acquired through yoga practice.

Aṣṭakā — the eighth day after the full moon.

aṣṭāṅga-yoga — The eight-phase system of yoga practice taught by the sage Patañjali in his Yoga-sūtras.

aṣṭāṅga-yoga — the eightfold system of mystic yoga, propounded by Patañjali, meant for realizing the presence of Paramātmā, the Lord in the heart.

aṣṭānga-yoga — (aṣṭa=eight + aṅga=part) a mystic yoga system propounded by Patañjali in his Yoga-sūtras and consisting of eight parts — yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, pratyāhāra, dhāraṇā, dhyāna and samādhi, progressing from moral practices to deep meditation on God.

Aṣṭāvakra — the founder of Māyāvāda philosophy, which declares that the spiritual effulgence (Brahman) is the cause of all causes.

Aṣtavakra — a boy sage who won a debate in the court of King Janaka.

asura — Demon or ungodly person, who oppose the demigods and the service of the Lord.

asura — demon, one who does not follow the principles of scripture, atheist, gross materialist. One who is envious of God, and is averse to the supremacy and service of the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu.

asuraṁ bhavam āśrita — persons who are openly atheistic.

asuric — Demoniac.

Āśutoṣa — Lord Śiva, who is very easily satisfied when one worships him. See also: Śiva.

asūyā — jealousy, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

aśvamedha — The elaborate Vedic horse sacrifice.

aśvamedha-yajña — a Vedic horse sacrifice. One of eight recommended in the Vedic scriptures, it is performed by kings.

Aśvatthāmā — The son of Droṇācārya who fought against the Pāṇḍavas at Kurukṣetra. In a desperate act of revenge at the end of the battle, he killed the five young sons of the Pāṇḍavas in their sleep and tried to kill the last remaining heir, Parīkṣit, in his mother’s womb.

Aṣvatthāmā — the son of Droṇa. He was a friend of Duryodhana and fought on his side during the Kurukṣetra battle. He lived through the battle of Kurukṣetra, but was cursed by Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He killed the five sons of Draupadī when they were awakening from sleep and attempted to kill Parīkṣit when he was in the womb of Uttarā.

Āśvina — the third month of the four-month Cāturmāsya fast.

Aśvinī deities — demigods in charge of the nostrils and sense of smell.

Aśvinīkumāras — Demigods who begot Nakula and Sahadeva in the womb of Mādrī, the wife of Pāṇḍu.

ātapa-cāula — white rice.

atasī flowerlinum usitatissimum, flax, a plant with lance-shaped leaves that produces pretty sky blue or violet-blue flowers each spring and summer.

atattva-jña — one who has no knowledge of the Absolute Truth.

Atharva Veda — one of the four Vedas, the original revealed scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself, consisting primarily of formulas and chants designed to counteract the effects of disease and calamity.

Atibāri-sampradāya — bogus disciplic succession coming from an Orissan named Jagannātha dāsa, who was a contemporary of Lord Caitanya. Initially, he was a follower of Haridāsa Ṭhākura, but he later rejected him.

atimukta flowers — a type of jasmine.

ātmā — The individual spirit soul, an eternal fragment of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

ātmā — the self (refers sometimes to the body, sometimes to the soul, and sometimes to the senses).

atma-hanah — killer of the soul; one who neglects spiritual life.

ātma-nivedana — the devotional process of surrendering everything to the Lord.

ātma-samarpaṇa — full surrender to Kṛṣṇa without reservation.

ātma-tattva — Knowledge of the self.

ātma-tattva — spiritual science.

ātmarāma — Those who find their pleasure in experiencing the self.

ātmārāma — one who is self-satisfied, free from external, material desires.

Atri Ṛṣi — one of the seven great sages born directly from Brahmā;. He is the husband of Anusūyā and father of the Lord’s incarnation Dattātreya. He contributed to the knowledge of astronomy.

Atri — A Vedic sage, born of the mind of Brahma. When Atri prayed to the Supreme for a son like Him, but without a clear idea of who the Supreme is, the Lords Viṣṇu, Brahmā, and Śiva all agreed to become his sons as Dattātreya, Soma, and Durvāsā.

atta flour — also known as chapati flour, this low-gluten flour is derived from a strain of soft wheat popular throughout India. The entire wheat kernel, including the bran, germ, and endosperm, is ground very finely making a nutritious flour. Atta flour is suitable for all Indian flatbreads, such as pooris, chapatis, and parathas. Doughs made with atta flour are velvety smooth, knead readily, and respond easily to shaping and rolling. Atta flour is available from Indian and Asian grocery stores.

augrya — violence, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

autsukya — eagerness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

avadhūta — A spiritually advanced person whose activities are not restricted by social convention.

avadhūta — a very saintly and renounced person who may live outside regulative principles, having surpassed any need for them.

avadhūta — one who is above all rules and regulations.

avahitthā — concealment, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

avaiṣṇava — one who is not a Vaiṣṇava.

Avanti — One of the seven sacred cities that can bestow liberation. Kṛṣṇa’s spiritual master, Sāndīpani Muni, resided there, and Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma lived there as students in his āśrama. Avanti has become the modern city of Ujjain, in the western part of Madhya Pradesh.

avara — material.

Āvaraṇātmikāmāyā’s “covering” power, by which a conditioned soul feels satisfied in any condition of life.

avaroha-panthā — the descending process of receiving revealed knowledge.

avatāra — A “descent” of the Supreme Lord to the material world in one of His many forms.

avatāra — literally means “one who descends.” A partially or fully empowered incarnation of the Lord who descends from the spiritual sky to the material universe with a particular mission described in scriptures.

avatārī — The original Supreme Lord, from whom all avatāras expand.

āvega — intense emotion, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

āveśaSee: Śakty-āveśa.

āveśa-avatāra — a living being empowered as an incarnation of the Lord’s qualities.

avidhi-pūrvaka — without properly following rules and regulations.

avidyā — Ignorance.

avidyā — nescience, ignorance; the illusory energy of the Supreme Lord..

avidyā-śakti — material energy, or nescience.

avyakta — unmanifested; the material creation when it is not yet manifested from the mahat-tattva.

Ayodhyā — The capital of the Kośala kingdom, inherited by Lord Rāmacandra from His ancestors. It is located in south-central Uttar Pradesh. The original Ayodhyā in the eternal kingdom of God lies above the other Vaikuṇṭha worlds and below Goloka Vṛndāvana.

Ayodya — a city in North India, capital of the kings of the Ikavaku (solar) dynasty. Today, it is till the chief Holy City of Lord Rama's devotees.

ayogaSee: viyoga.

Ayukta — the ecstatic condition of not having yet met one’s lover.

āyurveda — the section of the Vedas which expounds the Vedic science of medicine delivered by Lord Dhanvantari, the incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a physician. He was born out of the ocean of milk when it was churned by the demons and demigods in the Satya-yuga. He expounded on the three categories of medicine.




baba — religious master, a term of respect.

bābājī — One who devotes the major portion of his life to solitary devotional practices, especially chanting the Lord’s names.

bābājī — a person who dwells alone in one place and leads a life of meditation, penance and austerity; renounced order beyond sannyāsa, in which one chants and reads.

Babhru — one of the Yadu warriors and servant of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Babhruvāhana — a son of Arjuna by Citrāṇgada, the daughter of the King of Maṇipur. Babhruvāhana engaged in battle with his father over the sacrificial horse. At that time Babhruvāhana killed Arjuna. Arjuna was later brought back to life by Ulūpī, another wife of Arjuna.

Bādarāyaṇa — See Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa.

Badarikā — (-āśrama) The holy place on the banks of the Alakanandā and Sarasvatī Rivers, among the peaks of the Himalayas, where Lord Nara-Nārāyaṇa and Dvaipāyana Vyāsa reside.

Badarikāśrama — a sacred holy place of pilgrimage in the Himālayas. The Pāṇḍavas visited here during their exile in the forest. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata) It is the abode of Lord Nara-Nārāyaṇa, who sat under a badarī (plum) tree to perform austerities.

baddha-jña — a conditioned soul who distinguishes between the Lord’s body and soul.

bagh — garden.

Bāhadbala — the King of Kosala. He joined the side of the Kauravas and was killed by Abhimanyu. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Bāhadratha — a king of Magadha, and the father of Jarāsandha.

bahirmukha-jana — a person influenced by the external energy.

bahūdaka — the second stage of the sannyāsa order, in which one begs from door to door.

Bāhuka — the personified sins of King Vena.

Baka — (-asura) A demon who assumed the form of a crane to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Kṛṣṇa killed him by tearing apart his beak.

Bakāsura — a demon who was shaped like a huge duck and who tried to kill Kṛṣṇa.

baksheesh — tip, donation, or bribe.

bakulaMimusops elengi, an evergreen tree of the Indian subcontinent, with small, shiny, thick, narrow, pointed leaves, straight trunk, and spreading branches. Blooms between March and July with tiny, cream-colored, aromatic flowers. The flowers retain their aroma days after being picked or having fallen and therefore symbolize unwavering devotion.

bakula — a fragrant flower very pleasing to Lord Kṛṣna.

Bāla-gopāla — The infant cowherd Kṛṣṇa.

Bāla-gopāla — Deity of Kṛṣṇa as a cowherd boy.

Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa — A prominent scholarly ācārya in the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sampradāya. He studied under Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī, by whose direction he composed Śrī Govinda-bhāṣya, the Gauḍīya commentary on Vedānta-sūtra, in the first decades of the eighteenth century.

Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa — Born in the 18th century in the Baleswar district of Orissa, he was initially a learned scholar of the Madhva-sampradāya. He was converted to Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavism and became the ardent follower of Viśvanātha Cakravartī Thākura. He is especially renowned for his commentary on Vedānta-sūtra called Govinda-bhāṣya.

 Baladeva — See Balarāma.

Balagaṇḍi festival — the festival during the Ratha-yātrā procession when everyone offers various opulent foods to Lord Jagannātha at Balagaṇḍi.

Balarāma (Baladeva) — the first plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa. He appeared as the son of Rohiṇī and elder brother of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Also known as Balabhadra or Baladeva, present as one of the three Jagannātha deities.

Balarāma — (Baladeva, Balabhadra) Kṛṣṇa’s elder brother, and His first plenary expansion, son of Vasudeva and Rohiṇī.

Bālhīka — a son of Pratīpa. He had two brothers Devāpi and Śantanu. He was killed by Bhīmasena during the Kurukṣetra war. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Bali Māhāraja — the king of the demons who gave three paces of land to Vamanadeva, the dwarf incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu, and thereby became a great devotee by surrendering everything to Him.

Bali — King of the Daitya demons, son of Virocana, and grandson of the great Vaiṣṇava Prahlāda. When Lord Vāmana tricked Bali into donating three paces of land and then with two steps covered the universe, Bali achieved perfection by surrendering everything he had to the Lord.

bāliśa — innocent and foolish like a child.

Ballal Sen — King of Bengal in the 12th century. He was the son of King Vijaya Sen, the founder of Navadvīpa. Ballal Sen's son was Laksman Sen, the sponsor of Jayadeva Gosvāmi, the author of Gītā-govinda.

Balvala — A demon who disturbed the sacrifices of sages in the Naimiṣa forest. They appealed for help to Lord Balarāma, and the Lord killed him.

bālya — Childhood.

bamboo shoots — the tender, inner part of the young shoots of the bamboo tree. They are used as an ingredient in Chinese, Japanese, and South East Asian dishes. The best quality bamboo is the first growth of shoots that sprout early in the new year and is known as winter bamboo. Fresh bamboo shoots are more or less unavailable in the West. Substitute canned bamboo shoots, available at any Asian grocer.

Bāṇa — (-asura) A thousand-armed demon, son of Bali. He was a favored devotee of Lord Siva’s. When Bāṇa’s daughter Ūṣā hid Kṛṣṇa’s grandson Aniruddha in Bāṇa’s palace, the demon arrested Aniruddha, and a battle ensued between Kṛṣṇa and Lord Śiva. Defeated, Lord Śiva begged Kṛṣṇa to spare Bāṇa’s life. Kṛṣṇa then severed all but four of Bāṇa’s arms and blessed him to become an eternal associate of Śiva.

Bāṇāsura — a thousand-armed demon slain by Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Bandhu-ha — the killer of māyā.

bandhujiva flowers — red flowers used to decorate hair.

Bandi — son of Varuṇa who was defeated in debate by Aṣṭavakra.

banyan tree — a sacred tree of the fig family with self-rooting branches.

Barbaras — low caste people born from Sabala, the Surabhi cow.

BarhiṣatSee: Prācīnabarhi

BarhiṣmānSee: Prācīnabarhi

barley — Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grass widely cultivated as a food grain. The most familiar form is called pearl barley which has had the husk removed and has been steamed and polished. It is inexpensive and has a pleasant, nutty flavour. Barley is high in carbohydrate content, containing useful amounts of protein, calcium, and phosphorus, as well as small amounts of B vitamins. It is excellent in soups, stews, and side dishes, as well as the refreshing barley water. Pearl barley is available at any grocer or supermarket.

basil — the fragrant aromatic herb Ocimum basilicum, known also as sweet basil. It is a small, profusely branched bushy plant, whose tender green leaves are used worldwide, especially in Italian cuisine, where it is used mostly in dishes containing tomatoes, and in salads and soups, on pizzas, and in pasta dishes. Freshly chopped basil should be used whenever possible, as dried basil makes a poor substitute. Fresh basil is available at good greengrocer shops.

basmati rice — a superb, light-textured longgrain, aromatic rice from North India and Pakistan with a wonderful fragrance and flavour. Even served plain with a little ghee or butter, basmati rice is a treat. Dehradun basmati is the most superior in flavour and texture. basmati rice is easy to cook and although more costly than other long-grain rices, it is well worth the extra expense. Basmati rice is available at Indian, Middle Eastern, and Asian grocers.

Battle of Kurukṣetra — a battle between the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas, which took place five thousand years ago and before which Lord Kṛṣṇa spoke Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna.

Bāula community — one of the apa-sampradāyas, or unauthorized devotional groups.

bay leaves — the leaves of the sweet bay or laurel tree, Laurus nobilis, an evergreen member of the laurel family native to the Mediterranean region and Asia Minor. The highly aromatic leaves are thick, dark green, and glossy on the upper surface. Bay leaves used in their fresh or dried form are quite pungent with a slightly bitter, spicy flavour. They are popular in French cuisine.

BBT — The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust; the publishing house solely and exclusively authorized to publish Śrīla Prabhupāda’s books.

bean curd — see: Tofu

bel-phala — the fruit of the bel tree. It is especially dear to Lord Śiva and has great medicinal value. Its pulp is very soothing.

Benares — Vārāṇasī, holy city on the Ganges in northern India.

besansee: Chickpea flour

Bhadra — one of the wives of Vāsudeva.

Bhadrakali — another name of Durgā.

Bhagadatta — the King of Prāgjyotiṣapura, and the son of Narakāsura or Bhaumāsura. He was killed by Arjuna during the Kurukṣetra war. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

bhagavad-bhakti — Devotional service to the Supreme Lord.

bhagavad-bhaktibhakti-yoga, devotional service to the Supreme Lord.

Bhagavad-gītā — The essential teachings on progressive spiritual life and pure devotion to the Supreme Lord spoken by the Supreme Lord Himself, Kṛṣṇa, to His friend Arjuna at Kurukṣetra in the last moments before the great battle. Vyāsadeva included the Bhagavad-gītā in the Bhīṣma-parva of the Mahābhārata.

Bhagavad-gītā — a seven-hundred verse record of a conversation between Lord Kṛṣṇa and His disciple, Arjuna, from the Bhīṣma Parva of the Mahābhārata of Vedavyāsa. The conversation took place between two armies minutes before the start of an immense fratricidal battle. Kṛṣṇa teaches the science of the Absolute Truth and the importance of devotional service to the despondent Arjuna, and it contains the essence of all Vedic wisdom. Śrīla Prabhupāda's annotated English translation is called Bhagavad-gītā As It Is.

Bhagavān — The Personality of Godhead, who possesses in full the six opulences (bhagas) of perfection strength, fame, beauty, knowledge, renunciation, and power to control.

Bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who possesses in full the opulences of wealth, beauty, strength, knowledge, fame, and renunciation; an epithet of the Supreme Person.

bhāgavat-kathā — Discussions about the Supreme Lord and His devotees.

bhāgavata jīvana — the life of a devotee.

Bhāgavata PurāṇaŚrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

bhāgavata — Anything related to Bhagavān, especially the Lord’s devotee and the scripture Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Bhāgavata — anything related to Bhagavān, the Supreme Lord, especially the devotee of the Lord and the scripture Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam;

bhāgavata-dharma — The principles of devotional service to the Supreme Lord.

Bhāgavata-dharma — the science of devotional service to the Supreme Lord; the religious principles enunciated by the Lord; the eternal function of the living being.

Bhāgavata-saptāha — a seven-day series of lectures on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam given by professional reciters to a paying audience.

bhāgavata-vidhi — Devotional service expressed mainly through chanting the names of the Supreme Lord, serving His devotees, and studying Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. In the modern age, bhāgavata-vidhi is recommended as the prime means of spiritual advancement, with support from the Pāñcarātric method of formal worship.

Bhāgavata-vidhi — the devotional process of serving the pure devotee and preaching Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Bhāgavata-vidyā — transcendental knowledge of the Supreme Lord.

bhāgavatam system — spreading of Kṛṣṇa consciousness philosophy by recitation and discussion of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Bhāgavatam — See Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Bhāgavatas — persons or things in relationship with the Lord.

Bhagīratha — the king who performed austerities to bring the Ganges to earth to save his ancestors.

bhāgya — good fortune.

bhāgyavān — most fortunate.

Bhairava — the terrifying aspect of Lord Śiva, who chopped off the fifth head of Brahmā.

bhaja — The imperative form of “to worship.”

bhajana — Loving devotional service to the Supreme Lord, performed favorably and free from the selfish motives of profit and liberation; a devotional hymn.

bhajana — this term generally to indicates the service and worship of the Supreme Lord executed by Vaiṣṇavas from the neophytes up to those who are fully God-realized. The main form that this service takes is the hearing and chanting of the holy name. Otherwise, the term refers to the singing of devotional songs about Kṛṣṇa, usually accompanied by musical instruments.

bhajana-kutira — a small hut or cottage where a Vaiṣṇava or saintly person performs his bhajana or personal mediation.

bhajana-kriyā — To practice devotional service under the spiritual master’s guidance.

bhajana-kuṭira — A cottage, hut, or similar place for performing one’s devotional service.

bhajanānandī — A devotee who is satisfied to cultivate devotional service for himself.

bhajanānandī — a devotee who performs his devotional activities in seclusion, not attempting to preach; a devotee who is satisfied to cultivate devotional service for himself.

bhakta — A devotee of the Supreme Lord.

bhakta — a devotee of the Lord; one who performs devotional service (bhakti).

bhakta-avatāra — an incarnation of God as a devotee.

bhakta-prāya — an “almost” devotee.

bhakta-vatsala — A description of Kṛṣṇa’s quality of loving kindness shown toward His devotees.

bhakti — Devotional service to the Supreme Lord. Bhakti in practice is the prime means of spiritual success, and perfected bhakti, pure love of God, is the ultimate goal of life.

bhakti — devotional service to the Supreme Lord; purified service of the senses of the Lord by one's own senses.

bhakti-kalpataru — the desire tree of devotional service.

bhakti-latā — Lit., “the creeper of devotional service.” A term used to liken the stages of a devotee’s growth in devotional service to the growth of a creeper growing upward.

bhakti-latā — devotional creeper.

bhakti-latā-bīja — the seed of the creeper of devotional service.

bhakti-mārga — the path of developing devotion to Kṛṣṇa.

bhakti-rasa — The ecstatic taste of personal reciprocation with the Supreme Lord in pure devotional service.

bhakti-rasa — the mellow derived from devotional service.

bhakti-rasācārya — one who knows and teaches the essence of devotional service.

Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu — lit., “The Ocean of the Pure Nectar of Devotional Service” ; a treatise on the science of devotional service (bhakti), written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu — one of the principal works on the science of bhakti-yoga, written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in the sixteenth century, a confidential associate of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. All of its conclusions are elaborately supported by reference to the Vedic literatures.

bhakti-śakti — the spiritual potency which is the essence of the pleasure potency and the eternity potency.

Bhakti-sandarbha — one of the six treatises on the science of devotional service written by Śrila Jiva Gosvāmī.

bhakti-śāstras — The scriptures, headed by Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, that teach one to render pure devotional service to the Supreme Lord.

Bhakti-śāstras — Scriptures dealing with the science of devotion.

bhakti-siddhānta-viruddha — that which is against the philosophy of acintya-bhedābheda.

bhakti-vaibhava — Understanding Kṛṣṇa’s manifestations by devotional service.

bhakti-yoga — The spiritual discipline of linking to the Supreme Lord through pure devotional service.

bhakti-yoga — the system of cultivation of bhakti, or pure devotional service, which is untinged by sense gratification or philosophical speculation.

Bhaktidevi — the personification of devotional service.

Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Gosvāmī Mahārāja Prabhupāda — (1874-1937) the spiritual master of His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda, and thus the spiritual grandfather of the present day Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. A powerful preacher, he founded sixty four missions in India.

Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura — The spiritual master of His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda; an ācārya in the Gauḍīya-Vaiṣṇava-sampradāya.

Bhaktivedanta Institute — An organization within ISKCON which conducts scientific research and education in accordance with the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava philosophy.

Bhaktivedanta — A title conferred upon Śrīla Prabhupāda by the Gauḍīya Maṭh, meaning “one who has understood that the conclusion of Vedic scripture is bhakti (devotional service).”

Bhaktivedāntas — advanced transcendentalists who have realized the conclusion of the Vedas through devotional service.

Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura — An ācārya in the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava disciplic succession; the father of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.

Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura — (1838-1915) the great-grandfather of the present-day Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, the spiritual master of Śrīla Gaura-kiśora dāsa Bābājī, the father of Śrila Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, and the grand-spiritual master of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura was a responsible officer and a householder, yet his service to the cause of expanding the mission of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is unique. He has written many books on the philosophy of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

bhakty-unmukhī sukṛti — pious activities that awaken one’s dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

bhāṇḍīra — A fig tree of the banyan species.

Bhānumān — a prince of Kaliṅga. He fought on the side of the Kauravas and was killed by Bhīmasena.

Bhānusena — a son of Karṇa. He was killed by Bhīmasena during the Kurukṣetra war. (Karṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Bharadvāja — a great sage and the father of Droṇa.

Bharata Mahārāja — an ancient king of India and a great devotee of the Lord from whom the Pāṇḍavas descended. The son of Mahārāja Duṣyanta who renounced his kingdom and family at an early age. He became very advanced in spiritual practice, but later became attached to a pet deer causing him to take birth as a deer. In his next life, as Jaḍa Bharata, he attained spiritual perfection.

Bharata Muni — An ancient sage, author of the Nāṭya-śāstra, a standard textbook on drama and poetry.

Bharata — 1. The second brother of Lord Rāmacandra. When Bharata’s mother, Kaikeyi, obliged her husband to send Rāma into exile and give the throne to Bharata instead, Bharata placed Rāma’s shoes on the throne and ruled as His representative until Rāma returned. 2. The eldest son of Ṛṣabhadeva. He was close to achieving pure love of God but became attracted to a helpless deer and so himself had to be born a deer. Then once again he was born as the seemingly dull brāhmaṇa Jaḍa Bharata. In this third life he instructed King Rahūgana and achieved ultimate perfection. 3. The son of Duṣmanta (Duṣyanta) and Śakuntalā.

Bharata — half-brother of Lord Rāma, he ruled Ayodhya when Lord Rāma was in exile.

Bhārata-bhūmi — ancient India.

Bhārata-varṣa — The planet earth, named after Bharata the son of Ṛṣabhadeva. In a more restricted sense, greater India.

Bhārata-varṣa — a name for the earth (now for India), derived from King Bharata, a great king who was the eldest son of Lord Ṛṣabhadeva.

Bhāratas — The royal descendants of Bharata the son of Duṣmanta. The Kurus belong to this dynasty.

BhāratīSee: Sarasvatī

Bhauma — (-asura) A demon born of Lord Viṣṇu’s incarnation Varāha and Bhūmi, the goddess earth. He is also known as Narakāsura. After causing havoc in Indra’s heaven and on earth, he was killed by the original Viṣṇu, Kṛṣṇa.

bhauma-ijya-dhīḥ — accepting something to be spiritual when it is actually material.

bhauma-vṛndāvana — Vṛndāvana on earth.

bhāva — Ecstasy in love of God. Various kinds of bhāva join together as the components of prema.

bhāva — the stage of transcendental love experienced after transcendental affection; manifestation of ecstatic symptoms in the body of a devotee.

bhāva-bhakti — the platform of purified goodness when one’s heart melts in devotional service; the first stage of love of Godhead.

bhava-roga — The disease of material existence.

bhava-roga — material miseries or diseases.

bhava-sāgara — the ocean of repeated birth and death.

Bhaviṣya Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas. It was spoken by Lord Brahmā and concerns future events and religious rites and observances.

Bhaviṣya-uttara Purāṇa — the last section of the Bhaviṣya Purāṇa.

bhāvuka — sentimental; can also mean advanced in the knowledge of spiritual rasas.

bhaya — fear.

bhayānaka-rasa — the indirect relationship of fear.

bhedābheda — The doctrine of simultaneous difference and nondifference between God and His energies. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught a version of this philosophy qualified as acintya ( “inconceivable”).

Bhīma — (-sena) The second and strongest of the five Pāṇḍava brothers, a great club fighter, voracious eater, and intolerant punisher of wrongdoers. In the Battle of Kurukṣetra he fulfilled his vow to kill Duryodhana and all the Kaurava brothers.

Bhīma — the second son of Pāṇḍu and Kuntī. Actually, his father was Vāyu, because Pāṇḍu had been cursed not being able to conceive children. By mantra Kuntī called Vāyu and Bhīma was born. He was known for his strength and strong appetite.

bhindi — ladies' finger, okra.

bhinna-rūpa-sandhi — the meeting of contradictory ecstasies.

Bhīṣma — The son of Santanu and the sacred Gaṅgā. He was one of the twelve mahājanas, the great authorities on Vedic knowledge. As the elder of the Kuru warriors, he led Duryodhana’s forces in battle until felled by the arrows of Arjuna. He passed away gloriously at his own chosen moment in the presence of Kṛṣṇa.

Bhīṣmadeva — the grandfather of the Pāṇḍavas, and the most powerful and venerable warrior on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra. The noble general respected as the “grandfather” of the Kuru dynasty. He is recognized as one of the twelve mahājanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord. He was given a boon to leave his body any time he pleased, consequently he decided to leave while laying on a bed of arrows in full view of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Bhīṣmaka — The king of Vidarbha and father of Rukmiṇī, Kṛṣṇa’s first wife.

Bhīṣmaka — the King of Vidarbha and father of Śrīmātī Rukmiṇī.

bhoga — material sense enjoyment; or, food before it has been offered to the Deity.

bhoga-mandira — the place where the Deity’s food is kept.

bhogī — sense gratifier.

bhogonmukhī — pious activities that bestow material opulence.

bhrama — false knowledge or mistakes.

Bhṛgu — One of the mind-born sons of Brahmā. He founded a prominent family of Vedic sages.

Bhṛgu — the most powerful of the sages born directly from Brahmā.

Bhṛgus — The family of Vedic sages and brāhmaṇas founded by Bhṛgu Muni.

bhṛtya — the servants of the body, namely the senses.

bhū — the creative energy of the cosmic creation.

bhū-dhāraṇa-śakti — the power to hold up the planets within the universe.

Bhubaneswar — a holy place in the district of Puri, Orissa, that is sacred to Lord Śiva and that was visited by Lord Caitanya. It is glorified in detail in the Skanda Purāṇa.

Bhudevī — consort of Lord Viṣṇu.

bhukti — material enjoyment.

Bhūmi — The earth, and the goddess who presides over it.

Bhūmi — Mother Earth

Bhūr — (Bhū-maṇḍala, Bhūrloka) The middle region of the universe, which includes the planet earth.

Bhūr — the lower material planets.

Bhūriśrava — one of the three sons of Somadatta, a King of the Kuru dynasty. He was killed by Sātyaki during the great Kurukṣetra battle. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

bhūti — opulence.

Bhuvar — the middle material planets.

bībhatsa-rasa — the indirect relationship of abomination.

Bihar — a state in northwestern India.

Bila-svarga — the subterranean heavens.

Bila-svargas — The subterranean heavenly planets, where specially empowered demons and other creatures enjoy exceptional power, health, and opulence, unaware that after a fixed duration of life they too will die.

Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura — A great Vaiṣṇava poet, also known as Līlāśuka. He was the author of Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta, a book rediscovered and revered by Lord Caitanya.

Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura — a great devotee-author, whose works include the Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta, the confidential pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

bimbaMomordica coccinia, a vine with bright red fruit often used to describe the color of lips.

bindi — A red dot worn on the forehead by Hindu women, signifying wedded status.

Birnagar — a town just south of Krishnanagar in the West Bengal district of Nadia. In ancient times the Ganges flowed past this town making it a prosperous river port. Once, the prince Srimanta Sandagar was sailing his fleet of ships up the Ganges to Birnagar and a violent storm arose. To save himself and his fleet, he prayed to Ulācaṇḍi, a wife of Lord Śiva. The fleet was saved, and the prince instituted her worship at this site. The town of Birnagar was thus also known as Ulā-grāma, the birthplace of Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda.

biryani — mild fancy rice, sometime with a sauce.

black beans — Soya beans fermented with malt and salt. They have a strong, salty flavour. Dry in texture, they keep for a long time in the refrigerator. They are popular in Chinese and Indonesian cooking, especially as the basis for black bean sauce. They're available at Chinese and South East Asian grocers.

black cumin seeds — Often confused with nigella or kalonli seeds, which are tear-drop shaped. Black cumin seeds (Cumin nigrum) are blacker and thinner than cumin seeds. They are exclusively used in North Indian cuisine, especially in Kashmir. They're available at well-stocked Indian grocers.

black pepper — (see Pepper)

black salt — a reddish-gray variety of salt with a distinct “hard-boiled egg-yolk” flavour. Black salt or kala namak, as it is known in Indian cuisine, is a major ingredient in the spice blend chat masala. Sprinkle black salt in Scrambled Curd. It is available at Indian grocers.

bloop — the sound of the soul falling into the ocean of material suffering; commonly used in ISKCON to describe someone who leaves the organization.

bo (bodhi) tree — the tree under which Lord Buddha attained enlightenment.

bok choy — the common Cantonese name for Chinese cabbage. These small cabbages, used in Chinese cooking, have dark green leaves and wide white stalks joined near the base of the stem. They resemble a miniature Swiss chard (silverbeet). The smaller the individual cabbage, the more delicate the flavour. They're available at Chinese grocers.

bolo — The imperative form of “to chant” or “to say” (Bengali).

borlotti beans — one of the most popular varieties of “legumi secchi”, legumes, in Italian cuisine. They are from the same family as red kidney beans and vary in colour considerably from  pale pink to dark red. They are always speckled. Borlotti beans should, like all dried beans, be soaked in cold water overnight, rinsed well, and then boiled in fresh water until tender. They are delicious in soups such as Minestrone. If borlotti beans are unavailable, substitute red kidney beans.

brahma śāpa — a brāhmaṇa’s curse.

Brahmā — The first finite living being in the material creation. He was born from the lotus growing from the navel of Garbhodaka-śāyī Viṣṇu. At the beginning of creation, and again at the start of each day of his life, Brahmā engineers the appearance of all the species and the planets on which they reside. He is the first teacher of the Vedas and the final material authority to whom the demigods resort when belabored by their opponents.

Brahmā — the first created living being and secondary creator of the material universe. Directed by Lord Viṣṇu, he creates all life forms in the universes. He also rules the mode of passion. Twelve of his hours equals 4,320,000,000 earth-years, and his life span is more than 311 trillion of our years.

brahma-bandhu — One born in a brāhmaṇa family but lacking brahminical qualification.

brahma-bandhu — one born in a brāhmaṇa family but lacking brahminical qualification.

brahma-bhūta — the liberated or spiritual platform of consciousness.

brahma-bhūta — the joyful state of being freed from material contamination. One in this state is characterized by transcendental happiness, and he engages in the service of the Supreme Lord; liberation.

brahma-jijñāsā — inquiry into the Absolute Truth; spiritual inquiry into one's own identity.

brahma-jñāna — knowledge of the Supreme.

brahma-jñānī — an impersonalist scholar.

brahma-jyoti — The spiritual effulgence of the Supreme Lord’s body. It pervades the space between the spiritual planets of the eternal kingdom of God, and it is conceived of as His impersonal aspect. Those who achieve impersonal liberation enter it, apparently losing their personal identities.

brāhma-muhūrta — The hour and a half just before sunrise, a time-span considered the most auspicious for daily spiritual practices.

brāhma-muhūrta — the auspicious period of the day just before dawn, from one and a half hours to fifty minutes before sunrise. It is especially favorable for spiritual practices.

Brahma-rākṣasa — a man-eating demon who was a fallen brāhmaṇa in his last life; the ghost of a sinful brāhmana.

brahma-randhra — the hole in the skull through which the perfected yogī quits his body .

Brahma-saṁhitā — Lord Brahmā’s prayers glorifying the Supreme Lord.

Brahma-saṁhitā — a very ancient Sanskrit scripture recording the prayers of Brahmā offered to the Supreme Lord, Govinda, recovered from a temple in South India by Lord Caitanya.

brahma-satra — meditating on the Supreme Lord always.

brahma-saukhya — spiritual happiness, which is unobstructed and eternal.

Brahma-sūtra — the Vedānta-sūtra.

brahma-tejas — the potency of a brāhmaṇa.

brahma-upāsaka — a worshiper of the impersonal Brahman.

brahma-vādī — A seeker of impersonal realization of the Supreme.

Brahma-vaivarta Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas. It contains prayers and invocations addressed to Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, as well as descriptions of His transcendental pastimes with Srīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the other cowherd girls of Vṛndāvana.

brahma-vidyā — transcendental knowledge.

brahma-yajña — studying the Vedas.

brahmacārī — A celibate boy in the student phase of spiritual life, receiving education at the residence of a spiritual master.

brahmacārī — a celibate student under the care of a spiritual master. One in the first order of spiritual life; In the Vedic social order, the student class who strictly accept the vow of celibacy, in the case of brāhmaṇas, up to the age of 25, at which time they may marry or continue the life of celibacy; a celibate student of a spiritual master.

brahmacāriṇī — Feminine variant of brahmacārī.

brahmacarya — celibate student life; the first order of Vedic spiritual life; the vow of strict abstinence from sex indulgence.

Brahmajyoti — the impersonal bodily effulgence emanating from the transcendental body of the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa, which constitutes the brilliant illumination of the spiritual sky.

Brahmaloka — The highest material planet, the residence of Lord Brahmā and his associates. Also known as Satyaloka.

Brahmaloka — the highest planet of the universe, that of the demigod Lord Brahmā.

Brahman — The impersonal, all-pervasive aspect of the Supreme Truth; the transcendental sound of the Vedas.

Brahman — (1) the infinitesimal spiritual individual soul; (2) the impersonal, all-pervasive aspect of the Supreme; (3) the Supreme Personality of Godhead; (4) the mahat-tattva, or total material substance.

brāhmaṇa thread — A loop of six to nine threads, worn around the neck and torso of a male brāhmaṇa, used in chanting mantras.

Brāhmaṇa thread — a multistranded thread worn by brāhmaṇas across the left shoulder and chest.

brāhmaṇa — A member of the most intelligent class among the four occupational divisions in the varṇāśrama social system.

Brāhmaṇa — a member of the intellectual, priestly class; a person wise in Vedic knowledge, fixed in goodness and knowledgeable of Brahman, the Absolute Truth; One of the four orders of occupational life, brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra. The brāhmaṇas are the intellectual class and their occupation is hearing Vedic literature, teaching Vedic literature, learning deity worship and teaching deity worship, receiving charity and giving charity.

brahmānanda — The bliss enjoyed from impersonal realization of the Supreme.

Brahmānanda — the spiritual bliss derived from impersonal Brahman realization.

Brāhmaṇas — The śruti texts that explain the ritualistic sections of the original Vedas.

Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas. It was revealed by Lord Brahmā and contains knowledge about this brahmāṇḍa, or spherical universe and future millennia.

Brahmāṇḍa — the material universe.

Brahmāṇḍa-bhramaṇa — wandering up and down throughout the universe.

Brāhmaṇī — the wife of a brāhmana.

Brahmaṇya-deva — the Supreme Lord, who is the protector of brahminical culture.

brahmarṣi — A sage among brāhmaṇas.

Brahmarṣi — a title meaning “sage among the brāhmaṇas.”

brahmāstra — An atomic weapon powered by mantra, carried by arrow, and able to be accurately aimed at a single person.

brahmāstra — a nuclear weapon produced by chanting a mantra, more powerful than many atomic bombs. It could be used only on a person of equal or superior strength. This weapon was given by Droṇa to Arjuna.

Brahmavādīs — impersonalists among the transcendentalists; those who are absorbed in the thought of impersonal Brahman.

Brahmoism — The philosophy the Brhama-samaj, a reformist Hindu movement.

Brajbhasah — dialect of local spoken language in the Vṛndāvana area.

Brajmandal (Vraja-mandala) — The circular area which encompasses Braj and designated by the pilgrimage path through the area’s sacred sites, each a scene of one of Krsna’s exploits.

bran — the tough outer pericarp layer of the wheat grain. It is removed together with the germ during milling to produce flour. It is a rich source of protein, B vitamins, phosphorus, and, of course, fibre.

Bṛghu — the leader of the sages in the universe.

bṛhad-mṛdaṅga — lit., “the great drum.” A phrase coined by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura that refers to the power of publishing books as an instrument for preaching.

Bṛhan-nāradīya Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas, or Vedic historical scriptures.

Bṛhaspati — The spiritual master of Indra and the demigods, and ruler of the planet Jupiter. He is a son of the sage Aṅgirā and grandson of Brahmā. His son is Uddhava, the great devotee of Kṛṣṇa.

Bṛhaspati — the spiritual master of King Indra and chief priest for the demigods.

Brijbasi — (var. sp., Vrajavasi) A resident of Vṛndāvana (Vraja). This spelling also refers to the company which produces the typical religious posters and calendar art seen everywhere in India.

Brijbāsi — inhabitant of Vṛndāvana.

BTGBack to Godhead magazine, the magazine of the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement.

bubhukṣus — those who desire to enjoy the material world.

buckwheat — Buckwheat is not a grain in the botanical sense, as it is related to dock and rhubarb, although some cookbooks classify it as such. Native to China, Nepal, and Siberia, it is rich in iron and contains 11% protein and almost the entire range of B-complex vitamins. Buckwheat is available in the form of the whole seeds, called groats, finely cracked groats, called grits roasted whole groats, called kasha; and flour. Buckwheat is popular in Russian and Jewish cooking. It is available at health food stores and specialty grocers.

Buddha — incarnation of Kṛṣṇa, the founder of Buddhism who lived during the 5th century B.C., and appeared to bewilder atheists and dissuade them from performing unnecessary animal sacrifices.

buddhi-yoga — another term for bhakti-yoga (devotional service to Kṛṣṇa), indicating that it represents the highest use of intelligence (buddhi).

buddhi-yoga(buddhi — intelligence + yoga — mystic elevation) another term for bhakti-yoga (devotional service to Kṛṣṇa), indicating that it represents the highest use of intelligence by surrendering it to the will of the Supreme Lord. Action in Kṛṣṇa consciousness is buddhi-yoga, for that is the highest intelligence.

bulgur wheat — a grain product made by par-boiling and drying whole wheat kernels and crushing them into various sizes. Bulgur is popular in Middle Eastern cuisine, especially in the famous tabbouleh salad. It has a chewy texture and a pleasant nutty taste, and is rich in protein calcium, phosphorus and iron. Bulgur wheat is available at health food shops and Middle Eastern grocers.

buttermilk — real buttermilk is the liquid residue after cream has been churned into butter. However, the buttermilk referred to here is cultured buttermilk, which is low-fat milk cultured in a similar way to yogurt to produce a pleasant, mild-tasting dairy product the consistency of light cream. Cultured buttermilk is delicious in drinks, soups, and vegetable dishes.




Caitanya Mahāprabhu — (Caitanyadeva) The form in which the Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa made His advent in 1486 at Māyāpura, West Bengal, and acted in the guise of His own devotee. He taught the pure worship of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, primarily by saṅkīrtana, the congregational chanting of Their names.

Caitanya Mahāprabhu, (1486-1534) — Lord Kṛṣṇa in the aspect of His own devotee. He appeared in Navadvīpa, West Bengal, and inaugurated the congregational chanting of the holy names of the Lord to teach pure love of God by means of saṅkīrtana. Lord Caitanya is understood by Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas to be Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself.

caitanya — living force.

Caitanya-caritāmṛta — translated as “the character of the living force in immortality,” it is the title of the authorized biography of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu written in the late sixteenth century and compiled by Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, presenting the Lord’s pastimes and teachings. Written in Bengali, with many Sanskrit verses as well, it is regarded as the most authoritative book on Lord Caitanya's life and teachings.

Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Śrī — The biography and philosophy of Caitanya Mahāprabhu written by Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kaviraja Gosvāmī.

caitya-guru — The Supersoul.

caitya-guru — the Supersoul, the expansion of Kṛṣṇa who is seated as the spiritual master within the heart of the living being.

cakita — a position in which the heroine appears very afraid although she is not at all afraid.

cakoraAlectoris graeca, the Himalayan partridge, lover of the moon, said to feed on moonrays.

cakora — a bird that drinks only water from the Śvāti Nakṣatra.

Cakra (Sudarśana) — the disc weapon of the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu. On the top of Viṣṇu temples there is usually a cakra.

cakra — A wheel or disc. See Sudarśana cakra.

cakra — one of six centers of vital energy located in the body; the wheel of Viṣṇu on top of temples.

cakravāka — A variety of duck, legendary lovers who must sleep apart at night and forever call to one another, “Cakava, may I come to you?” “No, Cakavī.”

cakravākī — The female of a particular species of duck.

Cakravākī — the female counterpart of the cakra bird. When the male cakra bird and the female cakravākī bird are separated, they make mournful sounds during the night.

cakravyūha — a formation of soldiers in the form of a cakra. This formation was considered impenetrable, and only the most capable warriors could penetrate it. Abhimanyu was killed while fighting in this formation. His father, Arjuna, taught him how to enter, but he did not know how to exit the gigantic formation.

cāmara — A fan made from the hairs of a yak’s tail, usually bleached white. Used in worship and the attendance of kings, it also has the practical purpose of driving away flies.

cāmara — a yak-tail fan used in Deity worship.

Camasa Ṛṣi — one of the nine Yogendras.

camasa — Ritual cups made of wood, used for offering soma juice in Vedic sacrifices.

camatkāra — Astounding.

campaka-puṣpa — a yellowish and very fragrant flower from the campaka tree. This flower is very dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa.

camphor — a pure white crystalline powder derived from steam of the camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphera, which in China and India. It is used in tiny amounts to flavour at some Indian grocers and pharmacies. Indian milk sweets and puddings. It is available regular Indian groceries.

Cāṇakya Paṇḍita — A legendary advisor to the Hindu king Chandragupta.

Cāṇakya Paṇḍita — the brāhmaṇa advisor to King Candragupta responsible for checking Alexander the Great’s invasion of India. He is a famous author of books containing aphorisms on politics and morality.

cañcalā — Flickering, unsteady.

Caṇḍakauśika — a muni who blessed King Bāhadratha, the King of Magadha, with a child. The child was born in two halves from each of the King’s queens. The two halves were thrown in the forest where they were joined by a witch named Jara. The child was later named Jarāsandha.

caṇḍāla — The most degraded class of man, an outcaste.

caṇḍāla — an outcaste or untouchable; dog-eaters, the lowest class of human beings.

candana — Sandalwood, which may be ground into a cooling paste.

candana — a cosmetic paste made from sandalwood; used in Deity worship.

Candana-yātrā — a twenty-one day festival held throughout India in the summer season. During Candana-yātrā devotees anoint the Deities of the Lord with shooting sandalwood paste.

candra — The moon and its presiding demigod, a son of the sage Atri.

Candra — the demigod who rules the moon.

Candragupta — a king of the Maurya dynasty in India. His armies repelled Alexander the Great’s advance into India.

candrakānta — Moonstone.

Candraloka — the moon planet.

Candraśekhara Ācārya — a great householder devotee of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Candrāvalī — One of the principal Vraja gopīs, the rival of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

candrāyaṇa — The austere practice, often prescribed as atonement for major transgressions, of restricting one’s eating for one month by taking only one handful of food the first day, increasing one handful more each day for two weeks, and then again decreasing by a handful a day for the second two weeks.

cannelini beans — the long, white cannelini beans are probably used more than any other dried beans in Italian dishes. They resemble dried white haricot (navy) beans, although they are smaller. Soaked and boiled in water until soft they feature in many vegetable dishes and soups

Cāṇūra — A wrestler of Mathurā ordered by Kaṁsa to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Kṛṣṇa wrestled him in Kaṁsa’s arena and killed him.

cāpalya — impudence, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

capātī — a flat bread made from whole-wheat flour.

capers — the pickled flower buds of the wild Mediterranean bush Capparis rupestris. Capers have been used as a condiment for thousands of years, and today feature especially in French and Italian cuisine. They have a distinct sour, salty flavour and are featured in this book in Tartare Sauce.

Cāraṇaloka — the heavenly planet of the Cāraṇa demigods.

caraṇāmṛta — The water that has bathed the feet of the Supreme Lord or His devotee. One honors caraṇāmṛta, normally collected after the daily worship of the Deity, by sipping it and sprinkling it on one’s head.

Caraṇāmṛta — remnants of water and other liquids used for bathing the Deity and then been mixed with yogurt and sugar.

Cāraṇas — A class of minor demigods who specialize in reciting praises.

caraway seeds — Caraway seeds are the fruits of the hardy biennial herb Carum carvi, a native of Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The brown seeds are curved and tapered at each end, and are sometimes mistaken for cumin seeds, although they taste quite different. Caraway seeds are warm, sweet, biting, and pleasantly acrid. They are a favourite flavouring for many kinds of rye bread and are also widely used in cheese,

cardamom — the aromatic seeds of the fruit of the tropical plant Elettaria cardamomum, a member of the ginger family which grows in the moist tropical regions of South India and Śrī Lanka. Cardamom is the world's third most costly spice, topped only by saffron and vanilla. The odour and flavour of cardamom is quite pronounced — reminiscent of lemon rind and eucalyptus. Cardamom is popular in some Middle Eastern dishes. In Indian cuisine, cardamom is used in rice dishes, milk sweets, and halava. It is also chewed as a breath freshener and digestive aid after a meal. Cardamom is available in the pod (green or bleached), as decorticated seeds (the outer shell having been removed), or powdered. It is suggested you shun the latter two forms and purchase whole pods, available at Indian and Middle Eastern grocery stores, for the freshest and most flavoursome cardamom seeds.

Carlyle, Thomas (1795-1881) — a Scottish historian and social critic who was an important philosophical moralist of the early Victorian age. He was opposed to empiricism, mechanism and materialism.

carob — the edible beans of the carob tree, a legume belonging to the locust family. The beans grown on this tall evergreen tree are dried, ground into powder, and used as one would use Carob cocoa. Carob powder is rich in protein and is delicious in confectionery. It also contains pectin, which is an excellent tonic for the stomach. Carob powder is available at health food stores and specialty shops.

Cārvāka Muni — the originator of hedonistic philosophy.

Cārvāka — a Rākṣasa, who was a close friend of Duryodhana. He took the form of a brāhmaṇa and tried to condemn Yudhiṣṭhira as an enemy of the people. He was recognized by the brāhmaṇas who then chanted mantras turning him into ashes.

catuḥ-ślokī — The four core verses of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2. 9. 33-36), spoken by Lord Kṛṣṇa to Brahmā at the beginning of creation.

Catuḥ-ślokī — the four verses of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.9.33-36), spoken by Lord Kṛṣṇa to Brahmā, that summarize the entire philosophy of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Catuḥsana — The four Kumāras.

Catuḥsana — the four Kumāras.

catur-hotra — the four kinds of fire sacrifices prescribed in the Vedas for purification of fruitive activities.

cātur-varṇyam — the four occupational divisions of society (brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, vaiśyas, and śūdras).

Catur-vyūha — the quadruple expansions of Kṛṣṇa who predominate over the Vaikuṇṭha planets.

 catur-vyūha — The principal expansions of the Supreme Lord in Vaikuṇṭha. The first four vyūhas are Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. The original Vāsudeva and Saṅkarṣana are Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma as They appear in Mathurā and Dvārakā, and the original Pradyumna and Aniruddha are Kṛṣṇa’s first son and grandson.

Caturdaśī — the fourteenth day of the waxing and waning moon.

cāturmāsya — the four months of the rainy season in India (approximately July, August, September, and October). During this period, there are certain rules and regulations which are strictly followed to decrease sense enjoyment and increase remembrance of the Lord.

Cāturmāsya — the four months of the rainy season in India, when sannyāsīs do not travel. Devotees observe special vows of austerity during this time.

Caturmukha — ” Four-headed” Brahmā.

Causal Ocean — the ocean in which all the universes are floating. See: Kāraṇa Ocean.

 Causal Ocean — The substance (originally a cloudlike darkness in one corner of the spiritual sky in Vaikuṇṭha) from which the material world is created. Prakṛti, material nature, resides eternally within it. To initiate the material creation, Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu glances at Prakṛti, thus agitating her to begin expanding the material elements. Viewed from inside the material universe, the same Causal Ocean appears like a surrounding shell of water and is named the river Virajā.

cayenne pepper — the orange-red to deep-red powder derived from small, sun-dried, pungent red chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens). This bitingly hot condiment should be used with restraint, for a small amount will add considerable zest and flavour to dishes. It's used in a number of hot dishes, notably in Mexican and Indian cuisine. Cayenne is available from supermarkets or well-stocked grocers.

Cedirāja — the king of Cedi; also known as Śiśupāla. Lord Kṛṣṇa killed him because of his blasphemy.

Cekitāna — a warrior of the Yadu dynasty. He was killed by Duryodhana during the Kurukṣetra war. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

cetana — a conscious living entity.

Chadar — A shawl.

chadar — cotton or wool cloth worn on the upper half of the body, also worn by temple priests during worship.

chai — tea.

chaitya — Buddhist temple. Buddhist hall of worship.

Chakra — disc weapon of Lord Viṣṇu.

chalo, chalo — let's go, let's go.

chamara — a yak-tail wisk or fan.

chameliJasminium sambac, Arabian jasmine.

chamomile — both Roman and German chamomile grow wild over much of Europe and temperate Asia. An aromatic herb with a delicate flavour and fruity aroma reminiscent of apples, it is made from the dried flower heads of Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis). Taken as a tea, it is good for relieving colic and flatulence and is a stomach tonic. It is available at any well-stocked supermarket or health food shop.

champakaMichelia champaka, a large tree with fragrant, pale yellow flowers. A type of jasmine.

chana dal — Husked, split whole dried brown chickpeas (a relative of the common chickpea). They are very popular in Indian cuisine, especially in dal dishes and savouries, being tasty, nutritious, and easy to digest. Chana dal is roasted and ground into chickpea flour (besan) and used throughout India for savouries and sweets. Chana dal is available at Indian grocery stores. See also: Chickpea flour

chandas — the different meters of Vedic hymns.

Chāndogya Upaniṣad — one of the principal Upaniṣads, philosophical portions of the Vedas.

Chandra — the moon-god of the moon.

Chandragupta — A Hindu king renowned through history for his social and political wisdom.

channa — chick peas (garbanzo beans)

channāvatāra — a concealed incarnation in disguise.

Channing, William Ellery (1780-1842) — an American theologian, founder of the Unitarian movement in New England. He believed in both rationality and mysticism. He concluded that in order for man to have a relationship with God He must be a person.

chapati flour — made from ground whole wheat. See: Atta.

chapati — A whole-wheat, griddle-baked flatbread.

chapati — flat, round whole-wheat unleavened Indian bread, cooked on a griddle and held over a flame until it inflates like a balloon.

chappals — sandals.

chat masala — a traditional companion to freshly-cut fruit in Indian cuisine. This lightbrown spice blend contains a number of ingredients, notably black salt, mango powder, and asafoetida. Sprinkled on fruit with a few drops of fresh lime juice, it makes a deliciously different dessert. Available from Indian grocery stores.

chataka — Sparrow.

chaukidar (chowkidar) — night watchman; guard.

chaukidar — A security guard.

chelā — Disciple.

chervil — a close relative of cow parsley, lacy-leaved garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefoliumlisan) annual plant mainly cultivated in France as a kitchen herb. Its flavour is delicate and less robust than parsley, with the distinctive aroma of anise. It is used raw, fresh, chopped, or broken into tiny sprigs. It is generally not cooked, but sometimes it is added to a dish just before serving. Chervil can be grown without difficulty in almost any garden or window box, or can be purchased at, or ordered from, well-stocked specialty greengrocers.

chickpea flour — the finely milled pale yellow flour from ground, roasted chana dal. It is popular in Indian cuisine for making batter, as a binding agent, and in confectionery. It is also known as besan flour, gram flour, and peas meal, and is available at Indian grocers.

chickpeas — known as garbanzos in Spanish speaking countries or ceci in Italy, chickpeas are the peas from the pods of the plant Cicer arietinum. They are popular in India in their immature green state, whereas they are commonly known outside of India in their dried state. These large, lightbrown, wrinkled peas must be soaked before use, then boiled until soft. They are used extensively in many cuisines around the world, especially Indian, Mexican, and Middle Eastern. They are rich in protein — 100 grams (3.5 ounces) cooked chickpeas contain 20 g protein. Chickpeas provide nearly double the amount of iron and more vitamin C than most legumes. Chickpeas are available at Continental, Indian, and Middle Eastern grocers, and at well-stocked supermarkets.

chili oil — a fiery hot oil used in Chinese cooking. To make your own chili oil, stir-fry 3 or 4 dried red chilies in a few tablespoons of oil over moderate heat for 3 minutes. Strain the oil and use as required. Alternatively, chili oil can be purchased at any Chinese or South East Asian grocer.

chilies, dried — the dried pods of plants of the genus Capsicum, they are indigenous to Mexico, Central America, the West Indies and much of South America. Dried chilies vary in size and heat, and can be obtained whole or crushed. In Indian cuisine, chilies are sauteed in ghee or oil with other spices and added to dals, chutneys, and sauces to impart heat. Obtain dried red chilies at Indian or Middle Eastern grocery stores, or at supermarkets.

chilies, green — the unripe green pods of various chili peppers are available in the markets of most hot countries. Choose firm, green specimens. Fresh green chilies have an advantage over dried chilies, as they impart a delicious flavour as well as heat. The seeds are the hottest part, and often a recipe calls for removing the seeds to tame the heat of the chili. Green chilies are indispensable in Indian, Mexican, Indonesian, and Italian dishes. Fresh chilies are also nutritious, being rich in vitamins A and C. They also stimulate sluggish digestion. Fresh green chilies are available at most greengrocers and supermarkets.

choko — Used in Mexican, Chinese, and Indonesian cooking, this delicate, pale-green, pear-shaped vegetable, which is related to the gourd family, originally came from Mexico, where it is known as chayote. When buying chokos, look for young tender ones with pale, green, almost translucent skin. The spikes on the skin should be short and soft. Chokos add a subtle flavour and an apple-like texture to any dish.

Cholas — South Indian rulers from the Tamil Nadu area.

choli — sari blouse.

chonki — a low wooden table.

Choṭa Haridāsa — An associate of Lord Caitanya.

choti (coti) — Shikha; a tuft of hair worn at the back of the head of the braj area and by male Vaisnavisas.

choultry — dharmashala in the south; pilgrim accommodation.

choy boh — Preserved turnips, used in Chinese and Japanese cooking. Sold ln small packets, they are not expensive and will keep for a long time in the refrigerator. Preserved turnips impart a pleasant, slightly salty flavour to vegetable dishes and savouries. They're available at Asian grocery stores.

choy sum — although this plant, also known as Rape (its seeds are the source of Rapeseed oil) is grown in various parts of the world, it is used extensively in Chinese and Japanese cuisine as a vegetable. It is delicately flavoured, with yellow flowers, succulent green stalks, and small brightgreen leaves branching from a central stem. This attractive vegetable is available from Chinese grocers all year round.

churna — A generic term for any of a variety of Ayurvedic medicinal herbal powders.

chyavan prash — An Ayurvedic herbal tonic paste.

cid-vilāsa — spiritual pleasure.

cinnamomCinnamomum zeylanicum is a moderate-sized, bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family whose dried inner bark is true cinnamon. Native to southern India and Śrī Lanka, the thin bark sheaths are sun-dried and packed one inside the other to produce “sticks” or “quills”. Confusion sometimes exists in distinguishing cinnamon from cassia. In some countries, what is sold as cinnamon is in fact cassia (cinnamomum cassia). Cassia is a taller tree with smaller flowers and fruits than true cinnamon. In general, cassia is prepared for the market, in much the same way as cinnamon, and their flavours are similar, although cinnamon is less pungent and more delicate than cassia. Cassia powder is reddish-brown, while cinnamon powder is tan. Cinnamon or cassia sticks impart a sweet, aromatic flavour to fancy Indian rice dishes, vegetables, and dals. Ground to a powder, cinnamon is an important ingredient in the North Indian spice blend garam masala. Cinnamon also features extensively in Middle Eastern and European cuisine. It is available at supermarkets and Indian and Middle Eastern grocers.

cintā — anxiety, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

cintāmaṇi — The mystic “philosopher’s stone,” which can produce anything one desires. In Vaikuṇṭha the land is made of cintāmaṇi stones.

cintāmaṇi — a spiritual mystically potent gemstone (“touchstone”), found in the transcendental realm. It fulfills all the desires of one who possesses it. When applied to a metal transforms it into gold.

 cintāmaṇi-dhāma — The spiritual world, where everything is made of touchstone (cintāmaṇi).

Cira-loka-pālas — permanent governors of the universe.

cit — alive and conscious; the indiviual living beings; unlimited knowledge.

cit-kaṇās — particles of spirit; the living entities.

Cit-śakti(cit — knowledge + sakti — potency) internal or enlightening knowledge potency of the Supreme Lord.

Citrabāhu — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Citrabāna — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Citracāpa — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Citragupta — the personal secretary of Yamarāja, who is the lord of death. He records the living entities' pious and evil deeds.

Citraka — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Citraketu — A sonless king at last blessed with a son, a son who died in infancy. Enlightened by Nārada, Citraketu became spiritually advanced, but he unintentionally insulted Lord Śiva and was cursed by Śiva’s consort. Thus he took his next birth as the great demon Vṛtra.

Citraketu — a member of the royal order who became fully enlightened in spiritual knowledge.

Citrāṅga — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Śalya Parva in Mahābhārata)

Citrāṅgadā — one of the wives of Arjuna. She was the daughter of the King of Maṇipura. Their son’s name was Babhruvāhana.

Citrāṅgada — one of the sons of Mahārāja Śantanu by Satyavatī. He was killed by a Gandharva of the same name.

Citrasena — a Gandharva leader who was a friend of Arjuna and a son of Viśvā-vasu. He received a weapon of fire from Arjuna, and helped the Pāṇḍavas when Duryodhana tried to embarrass them at Dvaitavana.

Citrasena — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Citravarma — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

citric acid — Powdered citric acid crystals can be used as a souring agent preparing dishes where moisture must be avoided. It is also effective in curdling milk when making Home-made Curd Cheese (panir). These sugar-like white crystals are available at Indian grocery stores, supermarkets, and chemist shops.

cloves — the dried nail-shaped buds from the evergreen tree Eugenia aromatica. Clove trees are neat evergreens with aromatic pink Coriander buds. These buds, when hand picked and dried, turn reddish brown to become the cloves with which we are familiar.  Good cloves should have a strong, pungent, sweet aroma and flavour and should be well formed, plump, and oily. Cloves have diverse uses in different cuisines of the world, being used for cakes, tarts and pastries, fancy rice dishes, soup stocks, sweet cooked fruits, and in various spice blends, including some North Indian garam masalas. Cloves are available at supermarkets and Indian grocery stores.

coconut cream — an unsweetened, fatty coconut product sold in blocks in Asian and Western supermarkets. Imparting a rich texture and coconut flavour, it is used in varieties of sweet and savoury Indonesian, Thai, and occasionally Indian dishes.

coconut milk — known as santan in Indonesian cooking, this creamy white liquid with a fresh, coconut flavour is extracted from fresh coconut pulp and is used in varieties of South East Asian and Indonesian dishes. It is available in cans from supermarkets and Asian grocers.

coconut oil — extracted from coconut 'meat', this oil is solid white fat at room temperature but clear when heated. It is used extensively in South Indian cuisine.

coconut — the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera is grown on tropical coasts all over the world and is the source of many products. Most important are the nuts (technically called drupes in this case). When coconuts are picked green, one can extract their sweet juice as a beverage. The pulp inside is used in many South Indian savoury dishes. When coconuts ripen on the tree, the picked fruits yield moist, white “meat”, which is excellent in varieties of vegetable dishes, savouries, rice dishes, sweets, chutneys, and beverages, especially in Indian and South-East Asian cuisme. Dried coconut is dessicated and is familiar in Western cuisine as an ingredient in sweets and cakes. When a recipe calls for fresh coconut, dried dessicated coconut is a poor substitute. Fresh coconuts are easily available in tropical areas and can even be found for sale far from their place of origin. These will be suitable as long as they are still full of juice and have no cracks or signs of mould around their “eyes”. Once cracked open, separated from their husk, and peeled, fresh coconut can be sliced, grated, shredded, stored in the refrigerator for several days, or frozen.

coriander leaves, fresh — the fresh leaves of the hardy annual plant Coriandrum sativum. Fresh coriander is one of the most commonly used flavouring herbs in the world, certainly on par with parsley. It is found in markets throughout the Middle East, China, South East Asia, India, and South and Central America. Bunches of coriander can be recognized by their smell and their fan-like lower leaves and feathery upper ones. Also known as cilantro, Chinese Parsley, and har dhania, fresh coriander is a zesty and delicious addition to many varieties of the world's cuisines. Its unique warm-bodied taste is found in Indian vegetable dishes, dals, savouries, and fresh chutneys. It also makes a very beautiful garnish. Purchase fresh coriander from Oriental and Latin American grocers or well-stocked produce markets and greengrocers.

coriander seeds — the seeds of the annual herb Coriandrum sativum. Coriander seeds are a favourite flavouring spice in Indian, Cypriot, and some Latin American (especially Peruvian) cuisines. They are almost round, brown to yellowish-red, with a warm, distinctive fragrance and a pleasant taste — mild and sweet yet slightly pungent, reminiscent of a combination of sage and lemon. Coriander is available whole or ground, although I recommend obtaining the whole seeds and grinding them yourself when you need the freshest coriander flavour. Known as dhania in Indian cuisine, coriander complements the flavour of many savoury dishes. They are available at Indian and Middle Eastern grocery stores.

corn meal — see: Polenta

corn oil — Extracted from maize, or corn, it is a light oil and one of the most unsaturated of grain oils. It can be used as an alternative to olive oil as a salad dressing ingredient, and since it has a high smoking point, it is an excellent frying oil.

cornflour — When I mention cornflour in this book, I am referring to what Americans call “cornstarch”, and not to the flour milled from corn. Cornflour, sometimes referred to as wheat starch, is the dry white powdered starch remaining when the protein has been removed from wheat flour. It is used in many cuisines, especially Chinese, as a thickener for sauces. It is available from any grocer or supermarket.

couscous — a grain product made from semolina. It is also the name of the famous dish of which couscous is the main ingredient, being one of the most common and widely known North African Arab dishes.

crore — ten million; one hundred lakhs.

cumin seeds — the seeds of the small annual herb of the parsley family Cuminum cyminum. Cumin seeds are oval and yellowish-brown, similar in appearance to the caraway seed but longer. They have a warm, strongly aromatic, and slightly bitter flavour and are used extensively in Indian, Middle Eastern, and Latin American cuisine (especially in Mexican dishes). The flavour and aroma of cumin, like most spice seeds, emerge best after they have been dry-roasted or added to hot oil. In Indian cuisine cumin is popular in vegetable dishes, yogurt based salads raitas, dals, and savouries. Cumin seeds can be obtained from any Indian or Middle Eastern grocer.

curd cheese (Panir) — the simplest type of unripened fresh cheese, produced by adding an acidic curdling agent to boiled raw milk. This versatile food ingredient is popular in all varieties of Indian cuisine, and it can also be used as a substitute for tofu, feta, or farmer's cheese. It is high in protein, has a soft consistency, and is sweeter and creamier than tofu. It can be cubed and deep-fried, and added to moist vegetable dishes and rice dishes, crumbled into salads, kneaded and rolled into smooth balls, and made into confectionery.

curd — yogurt. See: above

curry leaves — the thin, shiny, dark-green leaves of the South East Asian tree Murraya koenigii. Curry leaves are highly aromatic when fresh. Used especially in South Indian kitchens, they are generally sauteed in ghee with mustard seeds and asafoetida and added to dals, fresh coconut chutney, or vegetable dishes. They are an important ingredient in one variety of curry powder used in Tamil Nadu. Dried leaves are inferior but sometimes all that is available. Obtain curry leaves from Indian grocery stores.

Cyavana — a son of Bhṛgu Muni and the author of a text on astronomy. He is one of the seven great sages of the second Manvantara.




dacoit—a thief, particularly an armed robber. 


daihika—the bodily necessities of life.

daikon radish—this large white radish is commonly grown in Japan. It is eaten cooked or raw, and is also grated and pickled. Pickled daikon radish is called Takuwan and is eaten as a condiment with savouries such as Japanese Rice Balls (Onigiri).

dainya—meekness, vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Daityarāja—” King of the demons,” an epithet of Bali.

daityas—Demons descended from the children of Diti, a wife of Kaśyapa.

Daityas—demons; a race of demons descending from Diti.

daiva-varṇāśrama—the social system given by God for the upliftment of mankind. See also: varṇāśrama.

daivī māyā—the Lord’s divine deluding potency, the material energy.

daivī prakṛtisee: yogamāyā.

Dakṣa—One of the main Prajāpatis, the forefathers of the various species of life. He was a mind-born son of Brahmā. Of his sixteen daughters, thirteen married Kaśyapa, and the youngest, Satī, married Lord Śiva.

Dakṣa—one of the sons of Brahmā and a chief progenitor of universal population.

Dākṣāyaṇī—Satī, daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Lord Śiva.

Dākṣāyaṇī—a name of Sati

Dakṣiṇā—right-wing group of gopīs, who cannot tolerate womanly anger.

dakṣiṇā—a disciple’s gift to his spiritual master upon initiation, collected by begging and given as a token of gratitude.

dāl—Any of several varieties of pulses and beans used in soups and other preparations in Indian cooking.

dal—the name for any type of dried bean lentil, or pea in India. It is also the name for thick gravy-like or thin soup-like dishes prepared from these beans, lentils, or peas. Most raw dal in India is split. (brown lentils, yellow and green split peas, whole mung beans, arhar dal, chana dal, green split peas, and urad dal).

Dālbhya Muni—an ancient sage and grammarian.

dama—controlling the senses and not deviating from the Lord’s service.

Damayantī—the queen of King Nala who burnt a hunter to ashes by her curse when he attempted to molest her.

Dāmodara—Kṛṣṇa who was “bound by the waist” by His mother Yaśodā as a punishment for stealing butter.

Dāmodara—a name for Śrī Kṛṣṇa meaning “one who is tied around the waist with rope.” This name refers to the Lord's pastime of allowing mother Yaśodā to bind Him.

dāna—charity, one of the six duties of a brāhmaṇa.

Dānavas—Demons descended from the children of Danu, a wife of Kaśyapa.

Dānavas—the sons born to Kasyapa Prajapati by his wife danu; a race of demons.

daṇḍa—A staff carried by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs.

daṇḍa—a staff carried by those in the renounced order of life, sannyāsīs.

Daṇḍa-bhaṅga-līlā—the pastime of Lord Nityānanda breaking the staff of Lord Caitanya.

daṇḍavat—Prostration of one’s body on the ground as an expression of respect.

daṇḍavats— respectful prostrated obeisances offered to an elevated personality, such as one's spiritual master or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The word literally means “like a pole.”; falling flat like a rod.

Dantavakra—A king who attacked Kṛṣṇa to avenge the death of a demonic friend, Śālva, but whom Kṛṣṇa easily killed.

dārī sannyāsī—a bogus tantric sannyāsī who keeps women.

Daridra-nārāyaṇa—“poor Nārāyaṇa,” an offensive term used by Māyāvādīs to equate poor men with the Supreme Lord.

darśana— “Viewing,” an auspicious audience with a Deity or holy person.

darśana—the act of seeing and being seen by the Deity in the temple or by a spiritually advanced person. A verbal noun meaning the act of beholding or seeing. It also translates as 'audience~. When one goes to the temple of the Lord to have His audience and to behold Him, one is said to have the Lord's darśana.

Dāru-brahman—The Absolute Truth manifest in a wooden form.

Dāruka—the charioteer of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

darwaza—door, gateway.

dāsa—lit., “servant” (masculine). An appellation which along with a name of Kṛṣṇa or one of His devotees is given to a devotee at the time of initiation.

dāsa—servant; term used as addition to the name of a newly initiated disciple, meaning servant of Kṛṣṇa.

daśa-vidhā-saṁskāra—ten Vedic rituals performed one by one, from the time of conception until death, for the purification of human beings.

Daśamī—the day before Ekādaśi, when one prepares to observe the sacred fast.

Daśaratha—The father of Lord Rāmacandra. Having promised two boons to one of his wives, he was bound to his word when she demanded that Rāma be exiled to the forest and her son enthroned instead. Daśaratha granted her request but soon died from the anguish of separation from Rāma.

Daśaratha—the father of Lord Rāmacandra.

Daśārha—the founder of one branch of the Yadu clan.

Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭa—The sacred bathing place at Prayāga where the Deity Mādhava is worshiped. At this place Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu instructed Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Daśāvatāra-stotra—the introduction to Jayadeva Gosvāmī’s Gītā-govinda.

dasendriya—the ten sense organs: ear, eye, tongue, nose, skin, hands, legs, speech, anus and genitals.

Dāsī—Feminine variation of dāsa.

dāsya—the devotional process of rendering service to the Lord.

dāsya-rasa—The mood of servitude, one of the five direct devotional relationships with the Supreme Lord.

dāsya-rasa—the servitor relationship with the Lord.

dāsya-rati—See: dāsya-rasa

dasyu-dharma—the occupational duty of rogues and thieves.

Dattātreya—An incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu who appeared as one of the sons of Atri Muni. His instructions to King Yayāti are recorded in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, chapters 7-9.

Dattātreya—a combined incarnation of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva of the Supreme Lord who appeared as the son of Anusuyā by Atri Muni to teach the path of mystic yoga.

dāvānala—a forest fire; often refers to the self-kindled fire of material existence.

Dayitā-patis—leaders of the dayitās; they come from the brāhmaṇa caste.

Dayitās—servants who carry the Deity of Lord Jagannātha to His chariot.

dehin—When yogurt is drained of its whey content, the resultant thickened, rather solid cheesy residue is called yogurt cheese, or dehin in Indian cuisine.

Deity of the Lord—the authorized form of Kṛṣṇa worshiped in temples.

demigods—Finite living beings empowered with vast intelligence and influence for administration of the material universe on behalf of the Supreme Lord.

demigods—universal controllers and residents of the higher planets.

demons—impious beings who do not follow the instructions of the Lord.

desire tree—A tree able to yield any desire. It grows in the kingdom of God, and in a lesser form in Indra’s heaven.

deul—In Orissan temples it corresponds to the vimana or towered sanctum. It is a cubical inner apartment where the main Deity is located. with tower over it

deva—a demigod or godly person.

deva-dāsīs—professional dancing and singing girls trained to dramatize Vaiṣṇava ideology; they are called māhārīs in Orissa.

deva-gaṇa—a type of demigod.

deva-māyā—The external energy of the Lord.

Devadatta—the conch of Arjuna which was obtained by Maya Dānava from Varuṇa.

Devahūti—The daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu, wife of the sage Kardama, and mother of the Supreme Lord’s incarnation Kapiladeva. Lord Kapila taught Devahūti the science of pure devotional service through a study of the elements of creation.

Devahūti—the daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu who was the wife of Kardama Muni and the mother of the Lord’s incarnation Lord Kapila.

Devakī—The wife of Vasudeva and mother of Kṛṣṇa.

Devaki—the mother of Lord Kṛṣṇa. She was the daughter of King Devaka and a wife of Vasudeva's. When Kṛṣṇa appears in the material world, He first sends some of His devotees to act as His father, mother, etc.

 Devakī-nandana—Kṛṣṇa “the darling son of Devakī.”

Devakī-nandana—Kṛṣṇa, the joy and darling son of Devakī.

Devala—an ancient authority on the Vedas.

Devāpi—the brother of Mahārāja Śantanu.

Devarṣi—a title meaning “sage among the demigods.”; usually refers to Nārada Muni.

devarṣis—Sages among the demigods.

devas—The demigods who reside in Svarga, led by Indra. They rule the universe and administer the necessities of life for its inhabitants.

Devaśayanī—the Ekādaśī that occurs when the demigods go to sleep.

devī— “The goddess,” Durgā, Lord Śiva’s consort.

devī-dhāma—the material world, under the control of the goddess Devī, or Durgā.

devotional service—the process of worshiping Lord Kṛṣṇa by dedicating one’s thoughts, words and actions to Him with love.

Devotthānī—the Ekādaśī that occurs when the demigods awaken from sleep.

dhāma—A domain where the Supreme Lord personally resides and enjoys eternal pastimes with His loving devotees; abode.

dhāma—abode, place of residence; usually refers to the Lord’s abodes.

Dhanañjaya—a name for Arjuna meaning “he who attains great wealth by conquest.” This name refers to Arjuna's collecting vast wealth for Yudhiṣṭhira~s Rājasūya sacrifice.

dhaniasee: coriander

Dhanur Veda—a Vedic treatise on the science of warfare.

Dhanvantarī—The incarnation of Viṣṇu who appeared from the churning of the Ocean of Milk and then delivered to the demigods the nectar of immortality. He is the first teacher of the Ayur-veda, the Vedic medical science.

Dhanvantari—the incarnation of the Supreme Lord who is the father of medical science.

Dharā-maṇḍala—the earth planet.

dhāraṇā—Fixed mental concentration, the seventh of the eight steps in the yoga method of Patañjali. When dhyāna, meditation, is more deeply focused it becomes dhāraṇā.

dhāraṇā—fixed concentration, prior to full meditation (dhyāna).

Dharaṇī-devī—The presiding goddess of the earth. Also called Bhūmi.

dharma— “Religious principles,” or, more properly, individual duty. In another sense, dharma is the inseparable nature of a thing that distinguishes it, like the heat of fire or the sweetness of sugar.

dharma—religious principles; one's natural occupation. The capacity to render service, which is the essential quality of a living being. The occupational eternal duty of the living entity, regarded as inseparable from the soul himself.

dharma-dhvajī—a hypocrite, especially one who accepts sannyāsa but again becomes agitated by senses.

dharma-kalaṅkaSee: dharma-dhvajī.

dharma-śāstras—The scriptures, supplementary to the Vedas, that teach the proper behavior for civilized human society. Some dharma-śāstras are in the form of concise codes (sūtras), and others in the form of common verse. Best known of this second group is the Manu-smṛti (Manu-saṁhitā).

Dharma-śāstras—religious scriptures that prescribe regulations of social organization and religion.

Dharma-vyādha—A certain righteous brāhmaṇa who by a curse became a hunter.

dharmaḥ kaitavaḥ—cheating religions.

dharmakṣetra—a holy place of pilgrimage.

dharmānvekṣamāṇah—strictly according to religious principles.

Dharmaputra—another name for King Yudhiṣṭhira.

Dharmarāja— “King of religious principles,” an epithet of Yama (the Lord of Death) and his son Yudhiṣṭhira. Yama enforces the principles of religion by punishing all transgressors, and Yudhiṣṭhira was famous for performing all his personal duties without deviation.

Dharmarāja—a name for Yudhiṣṭhira, the first son of Pāṇḍu, or for Yamarāja, the lord of death. It means “the king of religiosity.”

dharmaśālā—buildings usually found in holy places in India which provide free or cheap rooming for pilgrims and mendicants.

dharmī—one who abides by Vedic law, or religious principles.

Dhaumya—the younger brother of Devala, and the priest of the Pāṇḍavas.

Dhenuka—(-asura) A demon sent by Kaṁsa to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. He and other demons took the forms of donkeys and seized control of the Tāalavana (forest of palm trees) in Vraja. Balarāma killed him.

Dhenukāsura—a mystic demon who took the form of a donkey and was killed by Kṛṣṇa.

dhīra—Steady, sober.

dhīra—one who is undisturbed by the material energy in all circumstances; ecstasy of sober love for Kṛṣṇa.

dhobi—a man who washes clothes.

dhoti—A single long piece of cloth, usually of cotton or silk, that is the standard garment worn on the lower part of the body by men of Vedic culture.

dhoti—a long cotton cloth, traditionally worn by lndian men, that covers the lower half of the body.

Dhṛṣṭadyumna—The son of Drupada. Both he and his twin sister, Draupadī, were born to help destroy the Kuru dynasty. In the Battle of Kurukṣetra he killed Droṇa, the military teacher of the Kuru princes.

Dhṛṣṭadyumna—the fire born son of King Drupada, who arranged the military phalanx of the Pāṇḍavas on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra, and the brother of Draupadī. He was born to kill Droṇa, and did so by severing his head. He was later killed by Aśvatthāmā while awaking from sleep.

Dhṛṣṭaketu—the son of Śiśupāla. He took the side of the Pāṇḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war and was killed by Droṇa.

Dhṛtarāṣṭra—The grand of the Pāṇḍavas. His attempt to usurp their kingdom resulted in the Kurukṣetra war.

Dhṛtarāṣṭra—the father of the Kauravas. He was born of the union of Vyāsa and Ambikā. He was born blind because Ambikā closed her eyes during conception, out of fear of the sage. He was reputed to have the strength of ten thousand elephants. The uncle of the Pāṇḍavas whose attempt to usurp their kingdom for the sake of his own sons resulted in the Kurukṣetra war. Bhagavad-gītā was related to Dhṛtarāṣṭra by his secretary as it was being spoken on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra.

dhṛti—perseverance or endurance; forbearance, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

dhrupad—a musical style that means ‘fixed verse’.

Dhruva Mahārāja—a great devotee who at the age of five performed severe austerities and realized the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He received an entire planet, the Pole Star.

Dhruva—The younger son of Uttānapāda, and grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, and great-grandson of Brahmā. Insulted by his stepmother, Dhruva left home at the age of five and achieved perfection in six months. Lord Vāsudeva gave Dhruva his own spiritual planet at the top of the universe, called Dhruvaloka or the polestar.

Dhruvaloka—the polestar, which is a spiritual planet within the material universe and is presided over by Dhruva Mahārāja.

dhūmāyitā—the stage exhibited by a devotee when only one or two transformations are slightly present and it is possible to conceal them.

dhūpa-ārati—ceremony of offering incense and a flower to the Deity.

dhustura—The thorn-apple, a powerful intoxicant that induces temporary insanity.


dhyāna—The yogic practice of meditation.

dhyāna—meditational yoga.

dīkṣā—spiritual initiation.

dīkṣā-guru—The spiritual master who connects one with the Supreme Lord through initiation. A disciple has only one dīkṣā-guru but may also have any number of śikṣā-gurus, instructing spiritual masters.

dīkṣā-guru—the spiritual master who initiates according to the regulations of the śāstras.

Dilīpa—the son of Aṁśumān and father of Bhagiratha. He was born in the sun dynasty and was an ancestor of Lord Rāmacandra's.

dill—a medium-sized herb with small feathery leaves and yellow flowers. Dill (Anethum graveolens) is related to anise, caraway, coriander, cumin, fennel, and parsley. Dill seeds are oval, tan, and light in weight, with a clean odour faintly reminiscent of caraway—pungent and pleasantly aromatic. They are most frequently used as a condiment, either whole or ground, especially in pickling cucumbers, and in breads. In France, dill seeds are used extensively in pastries and sauces, while in India they are used intraditional medicines. The feathery fresh herb known as ‘dill weed’ is excellent in potato salads. It can be obtained dried. Fresh dill is available at quality produce markets or greengrocers, and dried dill weed and dill seeds can be obtained from health food stores specialty shops, or well-stocked supermarkets.

dīpta—the stage exhibited by a devotee when four of five ecstatic symptoms are manifest.

Diti—A wife of Kaśyapa and the mother of the demons Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaṣipu.

Diti—a wife of Kaśyapa Muni, and the mother of the demons Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu.

Divya Desam temples—108 important Viṣṇu temples sung about by the 12 Alwar devotees of Tamil Nadu.

divyonmāda—Transcendental madness in separation from Kṛṣṇa.

divyonmāda—transcendental madness in separation from Kṛṣṇa.

Diwan-i-am—Hall of Public Audience

Diwan-i-khas—Hall of Private Audience.

Dola-yātrā—the swing festival of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

dosa—one of the three constituents of the body, according to Ayurveda. They are kapha (mucus), pitta (bile), and vāyu (air) .

dosas—a very large, thin pancake. made of fermented rice flour. They are often wrapped round a spiced potato filling and are then called masala dosa.

Draupadī—The daughter of Drupada and wife of all five Pāṇḍavas. Both she and her twin brother, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, were born to help destroy the Kuru dynasty. An attempt to disrobe her in a royal assembly doomed the Kurus to annihilation.

Draupadī—the daughter of King Drupada, and wife of the Pāṇḍavas. She was born from a sacrificial fire to be the wife of Arjuna. She was won by Arjuna at her svayaṁvara. She was a great devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Dravida—South India.

draviḍa-rāja—devotional service or a person eligible to act in devotional service.

dṛdha-vrata—A determined vow.

dṛḍha-vrata—firm determination.

Droṇa Vasu—A resident of heaven, one of the eight Vasus, who is an empowered expansion of Kṛṣṇa’s eternal father Nanda. Droṇa descended to the earth and merged into Nanda’s body to join Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes.

Droṇa—(-ācārya) A powerful brāhmaṇa who became expert in military arts. He was the military guru of both the Pāṇḍavas and the Kurus.

Droṇācārya—the martial preceptor of the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas. The military teacher of Arjuna and the other Pāṇḍavas and the commander-in-chief of the Kurus, who was obliged to fight the Pāṇḍavas on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra. He was the son of the great sage Bharadvāja. He wife was Kāpī, and his son was Aśvatthāmā. He was killed by Dhṛṣṭadyumna during the great Kurukṣetra war.

Drupada—the King of Pāñcāla, and the father of Draupadī and Dhṛṣṭadyumna. He was involved in a quarrel with Droṇa over half his kingdom. He engaged a sage name Yāja in a sacrifice to get a son who could kill Droṇa and a daughter who could marry Arjuna. Thus Dhṛṣṭadyumna and Draupadī were born. In the battle of Kurukṣetra he was killed by Droṇa.


Duḥśalā—the only daughter of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Gāndhārī. She was married to Jayadratha.

Duḥśala—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

duḥsaṅga—bad association.

Duḥśāsana—The second of Dhṛtarāṣṭra’s one hundred sons. Duhśāsana, Śakuni, and Karṇa were the inner circle of advisers to Duryodhana and incited him to commit grievous wrongs against the Pāṇḍavas. Bhīma killed Duhśāsana in the Kurukṣetra battle.

Duḥśāsana—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durādhāra—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

durbar—royal court, meeting place.

Durdharṣaṇa—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durgā—Lord Śiva’s eternal consort, of many names and forms, who joins him in his incarnations. She is the creator and controller of the material world.

Durgā—Lord Śiva 's wife in a fierce form, riding a tiger. The goddess is empowered by the Supreme Lord to preside over the material nature and bewilder the souls situated there into misconceiving themselves to be their material bodies and enjoyers and controllers of the mundane creation. She is very powerful, superseded only by Lord Viṣṇu Himself, and is the external manifestation of the Lord~s internal potency, Yoga-māyā. Once a fallen soul takes to the path of God consciousness, she continues to offer various material allurements so as to test his sincerity and determination to serve the Lord. Once the Lord accepts the struggling soul she can no longer influence that soul and it is thus liberated.

Durgā-maṇḍapa—the place in a house where mother Durgā is worshiped.

durgā-śakti—the material energy.

Durjaya—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durmarṣaṇa—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durmukha—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durvāsā Muni—a partial incarnation of Lord Śiva, a powerful mystic yogī, famous for his fearful curses. He is known for being easily angered. He granted a benediction to Kuntī that she could call any demigod and conceive children. Duryodhana once pleased Durvāsā and asked for a benediction that he and his thousands of disciples would visit Yudhiṣṭhira at a time when Draupadī had already eaten from her copper pot. The idea was that Durvāsā would become angry and curse the Pāṇḍavas. The plan back fired because Lord Kṛṣṇa saved the situation. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durvāsā—A powerful sage, a partial incarnation of Lord Śiva, born as one of the three sons of Atri and Anasuya. He is famous for his angry temperament and his readiness to curse anyone who dissatisfies him.

Durvigāha—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durvimocana—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durvirocana—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Durviṣaha—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Duryodhana—The eldest son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and chief rival of the Pāṇḍavas. He made many attempts to cheat the Pāṇḍavas of their right to the Kuru throne. After arrogantly ignoring the good advice of Bhishma, Drona, and Kṛṣṇa he perished with his ninety-nine brothers in the Kurukñetra battle.

Duryodhana—the first born and chief of the evil-minded one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, and chief rival of the Pāṇḍavas. He was a wicked asura by birth. He became envious of the Pāṇḍavas and tried in many ways to kill them. It was for the sake of establishing Duryodhana as king of the world that the Kurus fought the Battle of Kurukṣetra. He was killed by Bhīma when the later broke his thighs on the last day of the battle of Kurukṣetra.

Duṣkarṇa—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

duṣkṛtam—miscreants who do not surrender to Kṛṣṇa.

duṣkṛtī—a miscreant.

Duṣkṛtina—An evildoer.

Duṣparājaya—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Śalya Parva in Mahābhārata)

Duṣpradharṣaṇa—one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Śalya Parva in Mahābhārata)

duṣṭa-damana-śakti—the power to cut down rogues and demons.

Dvādaśī—The twelfth day after the full moon and the new moon.

Dvādaśī—the twelfth day after the full or new moon, thus the day after Ekādaśī, when one breaks one's fast by eating grains.

Dvaipāyana Vyāsa—The empowered editor of the Vedas. A different Vyāsa appears at the end of each Dvāpara age, when understanding of the Vedas becomes helplessly confused. The current Vyāsa, Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana, is an incarnation of the Supreme Lord. The Vedānta-sūtra and Mahābhārata are his personal compositions, and the culmination of his literary effort is the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

DvaipāyanaSee: Vyāsadeva

Dvaitādvaita-vāda—the Vedānta philosophy taught by Nimbarkācārya. This philosophy posits a simultaneous oneness and difference between the tiny spirit souls and the Supreme Lord. Later, Lord Caitanya gave further development to this idea as acintya-bhedābheda-vāda.

Dvaitavana—a forest where the Pāṇḍavas lived during their exile in the forest.

Dvāpara—(-yuga) The third of four repeating ages that form the basic cycles of universal time. During its 864,000 years, the mode of passion becomes dominant. The latest Dvāpara-yuga ended about five thousand years ago, at the time of the avatāras of Kṛṣṇa and Dvaipāyana Vyāsa and the Battle of Kurukṣetra.

Dvāpara-yuga—the third age of the cycle of a mahā-yuga. It lasts more than 864,000 years.

dvāra—the doors of the body, such as the eyes and ears.

Dvārakā—(-purī, Dvāravati) The eternal abode in which Kṛṣṇa fully displays the opulence of God. While descended on earth, Kṛṣṇa resettled the entire population of Mathurā in the city of Dvārakā, which He manifested by constructing it on the coast of the western Ānarta province.

Dvārakā—the island kingdom of Lord Kṛṣṇa, lying off India’s west coast, where He performed pastimes five thousand years ago. The capital city of the Yadus. Lord Kṛṣṇa had this city built to protect the Yadus from the attacks by the demons. It is an island situated off the eastern part of India, which is now known as Gujarat. When Lord Kṛṣṇa left this world, the ocean enveloped the whole city.

Dvārakā-vāsīs—The residents of Dvārakā.

Dvārakādhīśa—the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, Lord of the city of Dvārakā.

Dvi-parārdha—the duration of Brahmā’s life, 311 trillion 411 billion years.

dvija—A member of one of the three classes brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, and vaiśyas who are “twice-born” by dint of sacred-thread initiation by a spiritual master. The term is especially used in reference to brāhmaṇas.

dvija—a brāhmaṇa, or twice-born person.

Dvija-bandhu—Unworthy son of a brāhmaṇa.

dvija-bandhuSee: brahma-bandhu

dvija-bandhus—unworthy sons of the twice-born.

dvīpa—island; planet.

Dvivida gorilla—a huge, apelike demon killed by Lord Balarāma.

Dvivida—A powerful gorilla, once an associate of Jāmbavān in the service of Lord Rāmacandra. Dvivida offended Lord Rāma’s brother Lakṣmaṇa, and because of this and the bad effect of his own brother’s association, Dvivida turned demonic. Thus in a later age he disturbed Lord Balarāma and the Lord’s consorts. Balarāma then killed him.

Dwarapala—the doorkeeper sculptures by the doorways of Hindu and Buddhist temples.




Ekacakra — a village where the Pāṇḍavas stayed after the burning of the palace of lac. It was here that Bhīma killed the Rākṣasa Baka.

Ekachakra — The village in the district of Birbhum, Bengal, India, where Lord Nityānanda took his birth. 

Ekadaṇḍa — the staff, made of a single rod, carried by a sannyāsī of the Māyāvāda (impersonalist) school.

Ekādaśī — A day on which Vaiṣṇavas fast from grains and beans and increase their remembrance of Kṛṣṇa. It falls on the eleventh day of both the waxing and waning moons.

Ekādaśī — a special day for increased remembrance of Kṛṣṇa, which comes on the eleventh day after both the full and new moon. Abstinence from grains and beans is prescribed. Directly presided over by Lord Hari, Ekādaśī is a holy test day for Vaiṣṇavas. One should utilize this day for fasting and increasing one’s devotion to Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa by intensifying their chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra and other devotional activities.

Ekalavya — the son of Hiraṇyadhanus, the King of the Niṣadhas. He approached Droṇa to learn the science of archery, but was refused because of his low birth. He later built a deity of Droṇa and thus learned the science of archery. However, Droṇa did not approve of this process and asked for his thumb as dākṣiṇā. Ekalavya submitted and cut off his thumb. He then found he did not have the same skill as before. Ekalavya was latter killed by Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803-1882) — an American poet, lecturer and essayist who was the leading member of the Transcendentalists, a group of New England idealists. His view was an eclectic one, and he was much influenced by his studies of Vedic thought.

evādat — offering prayers to the Supreme Person (Arabic).




false ego — the conception that “I am this material body, mind or intelligence.” 

fennel — the tall, hardy, aromatic perennial of the parsley family native to southern Europe and Fennel the Mediterranean area. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is distinguished by its finely divided feathery green foliage and its golden-yellow flowers. It is used both as a herb and for its aromatic seed. In Italian cuisine, the bulb of the Florence fennel, or Finocchio, is used whole, sliced, or quartered as a vegetable, and either braised or baked au gratin. It is also chopped raw in salads. Wild fennel stems and the frondy leaves, with their slightly cooking, especially to flavour sauces. Fennel seeds, although used to some extent in European cooking, are especially favoured in Indian cuisine. The oval, greenish or yellowish-brown seeds resemble tiny watermelons. They emit an agreeable warm, sweet fragrance, similar that of anise. Fennel seeds appear in Kashmir and Punjabi dishes and are one of the spices in the Bengali spice blend panch puran. They are prominent in the famous beverage Thandhai, and in a variety of vegetable dishes, dals, and pastries. The most common use of fennel seeds in Indian cuisine is as an after-dinner digestive. They are dry-roasted and chewed, freshening the breath and stimulating digestion. Fresh fennel bulbs are available seasonally at good greengrocer shops. The seeds are available at Indian grocers.

fenugreek — an erect annual herb of the bean family indigenous to western Asia and southeastem Europe. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum - graecum) is cultivated for its seeds, which, although legumes, are used as a spice. The seeds are small hard, yellowish-brown smooth, and oblong, with a little groove across one corner. Fenugreek has a warm, slightly bitter taste reminiscent of burnt sugar and maple. The seeds are used in Greece and Egypt and especially India, where they are lightly dry-roasted or fried to extract their characteristic flavour. One should note however that over-roasting or frying results in excessive bitter flavours. The leaves of the fenugreek plant are also popular in Indian cuisine. Known as methi, they are used in vegetable dishes, breads, and savouries. Easily home-grown, fresh young fenugreek leaves are wonderful in salads dressed with oil and lemon. Fenugreek seeds are available at Indian or Middle Eastern grocers. The fresh leaves (if you are shopping outside India) can occasionally be found in markets, or can be home-grown.

feta — a crumbly, strong-tasting white cheese usually made from sheep's milk and ripened in brine. Feta cheese is especially well-known in Greek cuisine (see Greek Salad and Spinach and Filo Triangles, [Spanakopita]). Feta cheese is available at Greek shops and well-stocked supermarkets.

filo pastry — a very light and paper-thin pastry popular throughout the Middle East and in Greece. This delicate pastry is used for either sweet or savoury dishes. Filo pastry is featured in this book in Spinach and Filo Trianales (Spanakopital), and in Turkish Nut Pastries in Syrup (baklava) Filo is difficult to prepare at home and is best purchased refrigerated from well-stocked supermarkets, delicatessens, and health food stores.

five-spice — two varieties of five-spice are prominent in the world of vegetarian cuisine — Chinese five-spice powder and Indian panch puran, a blend of five whole spices. Chinese five-spice powder is a combination of five dried, ground spices, generally cinnamon, cloves, fennel, star anise, and Sichuan peppercorns, the pungent brown peppercorns native to the Sichuan province. When used as a condiment for fried food, it is used in sparing quantities because it is very potent. Try making your own by grinding together 2 or 3 small sections of cinnamon stick, a dozen cloves, 2 teaspoons of fennel seeds, 2 teaspoons of Sichuan peppercorns, and 3 or 4 star anise. Keep the powder in a well-sealed jar in a cool, dry place. Obtain your ingredients at any Asian grocery store. You can also purchase Chinese five-spice ready-made. Panch puran is most often associated with Bengali cuisine. It is a combination of equal quantities of fenugreek seeds, cumin seeds, fennel seeds, black mustard seeds, and nigella (kalonji) seeds. Panch puran is always fried in ghee or oil before use to release the dormant flavour in the seeds. Mix your own, or purchase it ready-mixed at Indian grocery stores.

flat rice — flat, pounded rice, also known as poha. Popular in Indian cuisine, it is sometimes deep-fried and added to fried potato straws, peanuts, and raisins and eaten as a tasty snack.

Food For Life — ISKCON’s food relief program.




Gadā — Kṛṣṇa’s younger brother, born to Vasudeva’s wife Devarakṣitā. 

Gadā — the club held by Lord Viṣṇu.

Gada — a brother of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Lord Baladeva. He was born to Vasudeva’s wife Rohiṇī.

Gadādhara — a name for the Personality of Godhead meaning “He who wields a club [in one of His four hands];” an intimate associate of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Gadādhara-prāṇanātha — Lord Caitanya, the life and soul of Gadādhara Paṇḍita.

Gadāira Gaurāṅga — Lord Caitanya, the Lord Gaurāṅga of Gadādhara Paṇḍita.

Gajendra — The king of elephants, a human king in his previous life but cursed to be born an animal. Attacked by a crocodile and unable to free himself, Gajendra remembered Lord Viṣṇu and prayed to Him in full surrender. Lord Viṣṇu then appeared and saved him.

Gajendra — the king of the elephants. He was saved from a crocodile by Lord Viṣṇu and awarded liberation.

galangal — there are two varieties of galangal — greater and lesser. Both are closely related, although the lesser is more important. Greater galangal (Alpinia galanga), native to Indonesia, is related to ginger. Its large, knobby, spicy roots taste rather like ginger and are used in Indonesian cooking. Lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum) is the rhizome of a plant native to China. Its roots have a pepper-ginger flavour and are used in many Indonesian and Malaysian dishes. In Indonesia it is also known as laos. Laos or galangal can occasionally be obtained fresh from Chinese or Indonesian shops. Peel and slice it before use. If unavailable, substitute fresh ginger. Laos powder is also used, especially in Indonesian cooking. It is less hot and more bitter than fresh laos. Use very sparingly or substitute slices of fresh ginger.

Gambhīrā — A room in Jagannatha Puri where Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would experience intense feelings of separation from Kṛṣṇa.

gamcha — a thin cotton towel, commonly used in India.

gamcha — an item of cloth, worn casually, usually around the waist.

Gandhamādana — A celestial mountain, sixteen thousand miles high, to the east of Mount Sumeru.

Gandhamādana — a mountain situated east of Mount Meru. Renowned for its fragrant forests, it forms the boundary between Ilāvṛta-varṣa and Bhārata-varṣa.

Gāndhāra — a province in ancient India believed to be the present day Afghanistan.

Gāndhārī — the saintly and faithful wife of King Dhṛtarāṣṭra and mother of one hundred sons. The daughter of King Subala of Gāndhāra. She was a great devotee of Lord Śiva from her childhood. Lord Śiva blessed her with a benediction she could have one hundred sons. Śrīla Vyāsadeva also blessed her with the same benediction. She was married to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, who was blind. When she found out that her future husband was blind, she voluntarily blindfolded herself for the rest of her life. She is considered one of the most chaste women of all time.

Gandharva — A celestial musician.

Gandharvas — the celestial demigod dancers, singers, and musicians of the heavenly planets.

Gāṇḍīva — the famous bow of Arjuna gifted to him by Varuṇa before the burning of the Khāṇḍava forest. (Ādi Parva in Mahābhārata)

Gaṇeśa — The first son of Lord Śiva and Pārvatī. He has the head of an elephant and removes obstacles for those who worship him.

Gaṇeśa — the demigod in charge of material opulence and freedom from misfortune. He is the son of Lord Śiva and Pārvatī, and is the scribe who wrote down the Mahābhārata. He has an elephant head. He has a rat for a carrier.

Gaṅgā — (-devī) The great sacred river flowing from the peaks of the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal and delivering from sin everyone who comes in contact with her. When she cascaded down from heaven by the endeavors of King Aṁśumān and his son and grandson, Lord Śiva detained her waters on his head to cushion the earth from the force of her descent.

Gaṅgā — the famous and holy Ganges river of India, which runs throughout the entire universe. She originates from the spiritual world, and descended when Lord Vāmanadeva kicked a hole in the top of the universe. One is recommended to bathe in the Ganges for purification. She married Mahārāja Śantanu and begot the famous devotee and warrior, Bhīṣmadeva

gāñjā — marijuana.

Garam masala — (literally, “hot spices”) A blend of dry-roasted and ground spices well-used in Indian cuisine. The spices used for garam masala warm the body (garam means warm). Such spices include dried chilies, black pepper, cardamom, coriander, cinnamon, cloves, and cumin. Other spices, such as ajowan, mace, nutmeg, fennel, bay leaves, ginger, and white and green pepper, as well as other ingredients, such as sesame seeds, coconut, and saffron, are also used according to the region, since Indian cooking styles vary immensely according to the geographical location. Generally, garam masala is added towards the end of cooking. It is available at Indian grocery stores.

garbha-gṛha — inner sanctuary or altar room that contains the main Deity of the temple. The literal meaning is “womb chamber.”

garbhādhāna-saṁskāra — a Vedic purificatory process performed for the conception of children.

garbhādhāna-saṁskāra — the Vedic ceremony of purification to be performed by parents before conceiving a child.

Garbhodaka Ocean — the body of water that fills the bottom part of each material universe.

Garbhodaka-śāyī Viṣṇu — The second of the three Puruṣas, incarnations of the Supreme Lord for the creation of the material universe.

Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu — the second Viṣṇu expansion, who enters each universe and from whose navel grows a lotus upon which Lord Brahmā appears. Brahmā then creates the diverse material manifestations.

Garga Muni — the family priest for the Yadu dynasty.

Garga — A sage who served as family priest of the Yadus. He performed the name-giving ceremony for the infant Kṛṣṇa.

garh — fort.

gari — vehicle.

Garuḍa Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas, or Vedic historical scriptures.

Garuḍa — The eternal companion of the Supreme Lord who serves as His personal carrier in the form of a large bird. He appeared as the son of Kaśyapa and Vinatā.

Garuda — Lord Viṣṇu’s eternal carrier, a great devotee, the son of Aditi and Kaśyapa who takes the form of an eagle and is the bird carrier of Lord Viṣṇu. He is often found atop a pole facing the entrance of Viṣṇu temples. The emblem of Garuḍa is always on the chariot of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Garuḍa-stambha — The pillar, found in front of many Viṣṇu temples, on top of which stands Garuḍa, Lord Viṣṇu’s carrier. While having darśana of Lord Jagannātha at Purī, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu would usually stand behind the Garuḍa-stambha.

garva — pride, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Gauḍa — (-deśa) The ancient kingdom of West Bengal where Lord Caitanya’s eternal abode, nondifferent from Vṛndāvana, manifests itself on earth.

Gauḍa-deśa — Bengal.

Gauda-desa — the holy lands of Lord Caitanya’s birthplace.

Gauḍa-maṇḍala-bhūmi — the places in Bengal where Lord Caitanya stayed.

gauḍas — pullers of Lord Jagannātha’s car.

Gauḍīya Math — The Kṛṣṇa conscious institution founded by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvati Ṭhākura.

Gauḍīya Maṭha — a Vaisnava institution, originally with 64 temples in India and elsewhere, founded by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Thākura for propagating the sacred teachings of Lord Caitanya throughout India and the world. It was first established in 1918 as the Śrī Bhaktivinoda Āsana. In 1919 he re-established it as the Viśva-vaiṣṇava-rāja-sabhā, an institution originally established by Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī and re-instituted by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura. The organization ultimately came to be known as the Gauḍīya Maṭha. Its influenced waned after the passing of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.

Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sampradāya — The school of pure devotion to Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa founded by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His followers. It formally descends from the Brahma-Mādhva sampradāyathrough Lord Caitanya’s initiation by Śrī Īśvara Purī.

Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sampradāya — the authorized Vaiṣṇava disciplic succession of bona fide spiritual masters coming through Śrīla Madhvācārya and Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; the followers in that tradition.

Gaudiya Vaisnava Sampradaya — the Bengal Vaisanava sect founded by Caitanya Maha-prabhu in the late fifteenth century. Lord Caitanya’s immediate disciples, the six Gosvamis, inititated the resurection of Vrndavana.

Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava — A follower of Lord Caitanya.

Gauḍiya Vaiṣṇava — specifically, a Vaiṣṇava born in Bengal, or, more generally, any Vaiṣṇava who follows the pure teachings of Lord Caitanya.

Gaura mantramantra composed of the four syllables gau-ra-aṅ-ga.

Gaura Pūrṇimā — The appearance day of Lord Caitanya.

Gaura Pūrṇimā — the appearance day of Lord Caitanya.

Gaura — (Gaurāṅga, Gaurasundara) A name of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu meaning “golden.”

gaura — of fair complexion.

Gaura-gopāla mantramantra composed of the four syllables rā-dhā-kṛṣ-ṇa.

Gaura-Hari — Radha and Krsna combined into one form as the Golden Avatar.

Gaura-kiśora Dāsa Bābājī — The spiritual master of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.

Gaura-Nitāi — Lord Caitanya (Gaura) and Lord Nityānanda (Nitāi).

Gauracandra — (gaura — golden; candra — moon) a name of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu denoting His appearance to be like that of a golden moon.

Gaurakiśora dāsa Bābājī — the disciple of Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura who was the spiritual master of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.

Gaurakṛṣṇasee: Caitanya Mahāprabhu

Gaurāṅga-nāgarīs — the name of a particular sahajiyā sect.

Gaurasundara — the beautiful, golden-complexioned Lord, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

gaurava-dāsya — condition when the devotee takes the form of giving protection to the Lord; category of dāsya-rasa.

gaurava-sakhya — the mellow of friendship in awe and veneration.

Gaurī Pārvatī — Lord Śiva’s consort, “Golden-complexioned Pārvatī.”

Gautama Muni — one of the seven sons born from Lord Brahma’s mind. He belongs to the family of Aṅgirā Ṛṣi and is the author of Nyāya-śāstra, the science of logic, which explains that the combination of atoms is the cause of everything.

Gayā — a famous holy place on the bank of the Phalgu River in the state of Bihar, where many pilgrims go to offer worship on behalf of their forefathers. The imprint of the lotus feet of the Lord are enshrined there, and it was there that Lord Caitanya met and was initiated by Isvara Purī. Lord Buddha attained here nirvāṇa. This is one of the four places in India where many pilgrims come to offer oblations to deparated ancestors.

gāyatrī — A prayer chanted silently by brāhmaṇas at sunrise, noon, and sunset.

Gāyatrī — a sacred mantra that a brāhmaṇa chants silently three times a day at sunrise, noon and sunset to attain the transcendental platform; the Vedic mantra that delivers one from material entanglement.

 GBC — Governing Body Commission, ISKCON’s board of directors.

ghana — transcendental bliss that is complete (lit. “concentrated”).

ghara-bhāta — rice prepared at home, not offered to Lord Jagannātha in His temple.

ghat — steps that lead down to holy river, lake or kuṇḍa.

ghāṭa — Steps built for bathing in a river or lake.

ghaṭa-paṭiyā — Māyāvāda philosophy, which sees no distinctions, stating that everything is one.

Ghaṭotkaca — the son of Bhīma by Hidimbī, a Rākṣasa woman. He played a very important role in the Kurukṣetra war. He was killed by Karṇa with the Śakti weapon of Indra.

ghee — clarified butter; Its delicate flavor and special qualities make it the best of all cooking mediums. It is used in cooking, in the performance of sacrifices, and for other activities of worship. The oil produced by clarifying butter over gentle heat until all the moisture is driven off and the milk-solids are fully separated from the clear butterfat. Ghee is an excellent choice for sauteeing and frying and is much favoured in Indian cooking, as well as some French, Saudi Arabian, and other Middle Eastern cuisines. The best ghee comes from Holland, Scandinavia, and Australia, although home-made ghee is easy to prepare and cheaper than purchasing ready-made ghee. Ghee can be purchased at Indian or Middle Eastern grocery stores, or some well-stocked supermarkets.

ghṛta — ghee.

ginger — the thick, white, tuberous underground stems, or rhizomes, of the plant Zingiber officinale, which thrives in the tropical areas of the world. Fresh ginger root has a spicy-sweet aroma and a hot, clean taste and is used in many cuisines especially throughout China, Japan, Thailand, and India. The young “green” ginger is especially appreciated for its fibre-free texture and mild flavour. Mature ginger root is more readily available at produce markets, Asian grocery stores and some supermarkets. Fresh ginger should be peeled before use. It can be minced, sliced, pureed, shredded, or cut into fine julienne strips and used in vegetable dishes, dals and soups, savouries, fried dishes, chutneys, rices, sweets, and drinks. Ginger powder is not a substitute for fresh ginger, having lost its volatile essential oil, and being sometimes stale or adulterated. Ginger powder is used mostly in European cooking in puddings, creams, beverages, biscuits, breads, and cakes. It is available at most grocery shops or supermarkets.

giri — hill.

Giridhārī (Govardhana)-silā — stones from Govardhana Hill in Vṛndāvana. Worship of these stones was inaugurated by Lord Caitanya and Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī. On the basis of statements from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Lord Caitanya established the non-difference of Govardhana Hill and Kṛṣṇa. By such worship Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī got the direct darśana of the Lord.

girimalliWrightia antidysenterica, Eastertree, a bush with jasminelike flowers.

Girirāja — “The king of mountains,” another name of Govardhana.

Giriśasee: Śiva

Girivraja — the capital city of Jarāsandha.

Gītā, Gītopaniṣad — See Bhagavad-gītā; another name for the Bhagavad-gītā, signifying its place among the Upaniṣads as spiritual instruction.

Gita-nagari — a spiritual farm community established by Śrīla Prabhupāda in central Pennsylvania.

glāni — a feeling that one is in a faulty position, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

gluten flour — a flour made from the protein constituent of wheat flour. It creates an extra-spongy texture when added to breads, by virtue of the elastic network it forms in the dough when water is added.

glutinous rice flour — a pure-white, starch-like flour made from a special round-grain, matt-white rice, which is much stickier than ordinary rice when cooked. It is used in Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Korean cooking for batters (savoury and sweet) and pastries. Glutinous rice flour is available at any Asian grocery store.

godāsa — servant of the senses.

Godhead — the ultimate source of all energies.

 Godhead — The Absolute Truth, the Supreme Reality, progressively realized first as the impersonal all-pervasive oneness, more fully as the Supersoul within the heart of every living being, and ultimately as the all-opulent Supreme Person.

godown — warehouse, storage room.

Gokula — The first home of the infants Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma in Vraja, before Nanda’s cowherds moved to Nanda-grāma. It is located in the Mahāvana forest, on the eastern shore of the Yamunā, seven miles south of Mathurā City. The name Gokula is also sometimes used to distinguish Kṛṣṇa’s abode on earth from Goloka in the spiritual world.

Goldsmith, Oliver (1730-1774) — an Anglo-lrish author who was famed as an essayist, poet, novelist, playwright, biographer and historian. One of his major poems is “The Deserted Village”.

Goloka Vṛndāvana (Kṛṣṇaloka) — the highest spiritual planet in the kingdom of God, Lord Kṛṣṇa’s personal abode.

Goloka — The eternal abode of the Supreme Lord in His original form of Kṛṣṇa. It is located above all the other Vaikuṇṭha planets. It has three parts:Vṛndāvana, Mathurā, and Dvārakā.

goonda (guṇḍa) — hired thug.

gopa — a cowherd boy; one of Kṛṣṇa’s eternal cowherd-boy associates.

Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī — one of the Six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, who directly followed Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and systematically presented His teachings, born at the beginning of the 16th century near Śrī Raṅgam in South India. He met Lord Caitanya as a child when the Lord stayed with his father, Vyenkata Bhaṭṭa, during the four-month rainy season. On the order of Lord Caitanya he journeyed to Vṛndāvana to join the other Gosvāmīs. While on pilgrimage he obtained twelve śālagrama-śīlās. Later, a Dāmodara śilā manifested Himself as the beautiful Rādhā-ramaṇa Deity, Who is worshiped to this day with great eclat. Gopāla Bhaṭṭa assisted Sanātana Gosvāmī in his writing.

Gopāla mantra — A confidential hymn, in ten syllables, to Kṛṣṇa in His original form as a young cowherd. Although chanted by the main character in Bṛhad-Bhāgavatāmṛta, Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī does not divulge the words of the mantra anywhere in Bṛhad-Bhāgavatamṛta or his commentary on the work. Those who want information on it may consult the Krama-dīpikā of Keśava Bhaṭṭa.

Gopāla — Kṛṣṇa the cowherd.

Gopāla — a name of Kṛṣṇa as a young boy; the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa, who protects the cows.

gopas — Cowherds, especially those of the community led by Nanda Mahārāja in Vraja.

gopī — A cowherd girl or woman; especially Kṛṣṇa’s young girlfriends in Vraja, who are His most intimate devotees.

gopī-candana — type of clay used for tilaka.

gopī-mañjarīs — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s most confidential maidservants.

Gopijana-vallabha — the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is dear to the gopīs.

 Gopinātha Ācārya — The son-in-law of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, with whom he argued in favor of Lord Caitanya’s divinity.

Gopīnātha — Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of the gopīs.

Gopīs — the cowherd girls of Vraja, who are generally the counterparts of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s hlādini-sākti, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. They assist Her as maidservants in her conjugal pastimes with the Supreme Personality of Godhead; Gopāla Kṛṣṇa's cowherd girl friends, who are His most surrendered and confidential devotees.

Gopīśvara Mahādeva — The liṅga deity of Lord Śiva in Vṛndāvana who protects the site of Kṛṣṇa’s rāsadance with the gopīs.

Gopīśvarasee: Śiva

gopura — The ornately decorated ceremonial gateway or archway of a temple or city. The gopuras of Viṣṇu temples simulate the gateways to Vaikuṇṭha.

gopuram (gopura) — highly carved soaring towers over the gates of the temples

gosāñi — other name for gosvāmī.

goshala — Cowshed.

goṣṭhy-ānandī — a Vaiṣṇava who is interested in spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

goṣṭhyānandī — A devotee who desires to preach the glories of the holy name.

Gosvāmī (goswami) — One who controls his mind and senses; title of one in the renounced order of life. May refer specifically to the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, direct followers of Lord Caitanya who systematically presented His teachings.

gosvāmī — a person who has his senses under full control: the title of a person in the renounced order of life, sannyasa. (go — senses + svamī — master) master of the senses.

gosvāmī-viddhi — “the way of the gosvāmīs,” i.e., transcendental devotional service.

Govardhana — Girirāja, “the king of mountains,” a large hill located fifteen miles west of Mathurā City. For seven days, Kṛṣṇa lifted Govardhana like a huge umbrella to protect the residents of Vraja from a devastating storm caused by the jealous Indra. Sometimes the name Govardhana refers to the village in the center of the hill.

Govardhana — a large hill dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa and His devotees. Kṛṣṇa held it up for seven days to protect His devotees in Vṛndāvana from a devastating storm sent by Indra.

Govardhana-dhārī — Kṛṣṇa, the “lifter of Govardhana.”

Govardhana-dhārī — Kṛṣṇa, the lifter of Govardhana Hill.

Govardhana-pūjā — The worship of Govardhana Hill by offering mountains of food and circumambulating the hill. This pūjā was initiated by Kṛṣṇa to establish that worship of Him is superior to worship of even the king of heaven, Indra.

Govardhana-śilā — a stone from Govardhana Hill in Vṛndāvana; it is as worshipable as Kṛṣṇa Himself.

Govardhanoddhāraṇa — Kṛṣṇa, the “lifter of Govardhana.”

Govinda dāsa Ṭhākura — the author of several important Vaiṣṇava songs.

Govinda — Kṛṣṇa, the proprietor of the cows, the earth, and the senses of His devotees; “one who gives pleasure (vinda) to the cows (go) and senses (also go); may also refer to Lord Caitanya’s personal servant.

Govinda — name the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa. “One who gives pleasure to the land, the cows and the senses.”

grāmya-karma — mundane activities.

grāmya-kathā — talk concerning family life.

grāmya-kavi — a poet who writes only about the relationship between man and woman.

Granthika — a name used by Nakula during the last year of the Pāṇḍavas’ exile in the kingdom of Virāṭa.

gṛha — home. For spiritual cultivation one requires an undisturbed place or the good association of devotees.

gṛha-vrata — The determination to remain in materialistic householder life.

gṛha-vrata — one who is attached to living in a comfortable home although it is actually miserable; one attached to the material duties of family life.

gṛham andhakūpam — the “blind well” of family affection.

gṛhamedhi — envious materialistic householder who lives only for sense gratification.

gṛhastha — A member of the household order of life, the third stage of spiritual progress in the varṇāśrama social system.

gṛhastha — householder stage of life. One who lives in God conscious married life and raises a family in Kṛṣṇa consciousness; regulated householder living according to the Vedic social system; the second order of Vedic spiritual life.

gṛhastha-āśrama — The household order of life, the third stage of spiritual progress in the varṇāśramasocial system.

Guha — A king of the low Niṣāda tribe befriended by Lord Rāmacandra.

guhyam — Confidential; hidden.

Gujarat — a province in northwestern India.

gulab jamun — a sweet made of deep-fried powdered milk balls, soaked in rose-flavored syrup.

gulabjamun — a sweet ball made from milk powder, fried in ghee, and soaked in sugar syrup.

guṇa-avatāras — The empowered incarnations of the Supreme Lord who preside over the three modes of nature. Brahmā, the secondary creator, directs the mode of passion. Śiva, the destroyer, directs ignorance. And Viṣṇu, the maintainer, primary creator, and Supreme Lord Himself, directs goodness.

Guṇa-avatāras — incarnations who control material qualities; the presiding deities of the three modes of nature. Viṣṇu, Brahmā and Śiva.

guṇa-māyā — the material world.

guṇas — The three modes of material nature, or controlling principles, sattva-guṇa (goodness), rajo-guṇa (passion), and tamo-guṇa (ignorance).

guṇas — the three modes, or qualities, of material nature: Brahmā controls passion, Viṣṇu goodness, and Śiva ignorance.

guṇātītasee: nirguṇa.

gunda — Dacoit, thug.

Guṇḍicā-mārjana — washing and cleansing the Guṇḍicā temple.

guñjāAbrus precatorius, jequirity. A vine with clusters of pink flowers and seed pods containing scarlet berries. The berries are said to represent service to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, so Kṛṣṇa often wears a garland of guñjā berries. Garlands of guñjā are considered especially sacred by Lord Caitanya and His followers.

Gurdwara — Sikh religious complex, which usually includes a temple and guest house.

Guru Mahārāja — (Gurudeva) Title of respect given to one’s own spiritual master.

guru — A spiritual master. The gurus who initiate one and instruct one in pure Kṛṣṇa consciousness are to be honored equally with the Supreme Lord.

guru — spiritual master.

guru-aparādha — An offense against one’s spiritual master. Such an offense is the most likely cause of falling from spiritual life.

guru-avajñā — disobeying the instructions of the spiritual master.

guru-bhai — god-brother

guru-dakṣiṇā — a disciple’s gift to his spiritual master, collected by begging and given as a token of gratitude.

guru-kṛpā — the mercy of the spiritual master.

guru-kula — a school of Vedic learning. Boys begin at five years old and live as celibate students, guided by a spiritual master.

guru-niṣṭhā — Firm faith in one’s guru.

guru-pūjā — worship of the spiritual master.

guru-sevā — Service to the spiritual master.

guru-tattva — The principles defining a spiritual master.

gurukula — ” The guru’s family,” a teacher’s āśrama where traditional education is given.

Gurukuli — a colloquial word referring to an alumnus of an ISKCON gurukula.

Gurvaṣṭakam — A eight-verse prayer by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura in praise of the spiritual master.




Hādīka — the father of Kṛtavarmān.

Haihayas — a dynasty of demoniac kings destroyed by Lord Paraśurāma.

halava — A sweet dish made from roasted grains, butter, sugar, and water or milk.

halava — a dessert made from toasted grains, butter, and sugar.

Haṁsa — Lord Viṣṇu’s incarnation as a swan, who gave instructions to Brahmā and his sons.

Hanumān — Lord Rāmacandra’s most faithful eternal servant, who has the body of a kimpuruṣa, a humanlike monkey. Hanumān, son of Añjanā, was minister to Sugrīva in the monkey kingdom Kiṣkindha.

Hanūmān — the great famous monkey devotee of Lord Rāmacandra. The eleventh portion of Rudra. He is the brother of Bhīma and the son of the wind-god, Vāyu, and Añjana, the daughter of Gautama Ṛṣi. The story of how Bhīma and Hanūmān met is told in the Vana Parva of the Mahābhārata. Hanūmān gave a benediction to Bhīma that he would ride on the flagstaff of Arjuna’s chariot and strike terror into the Kaurava troops with earth trembling battle cries. He served the Supreme Lord in His incarnation as Lord Rāmacandra and assisted Him in defeating the demon Rāvaṇa.

Hara — Lord Śiva.

Harāsee: Rādhārāṇī

Hara — a name of Lord Śiva; See: Śiva

Hare Krishna Land — Name of the ISKCON temple in Mumbai, India.

Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra — a sixteen-word prayer composed of the names Hare, Kṛṣṇa, and Rāma: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare, Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare is the personal form of God's own happiness, His eternal consort, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Kṛṣṇa, “the all-attractive one,” and Rāma, “the all-pleasing one,” are names of God. This prayer means “My dear Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa, please engage me in Your devotional service.” The Vedas recommend the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra as the easiest and most sublime method of awakening one's dormant love of God; the great chant for deliverance. These names have been particularly recommended for chanting in this age.

Hare — The vocative form of Harā, another name of Rādhārāṇī; refers specifically to the internal spiritual energy of the Lord.

Hari — The Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu.

Hari — the Supreme Lord, who removes all obstacles to spiritual progress; Lord Viṣṇu, the seeing the Deity of the Lord.

Hari-bhakti-vilāsa — the ritual and devotional practices of the Gauḍīya-vaiṣṇava-sampradāya, codified into twenty chapters by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī and Śrīla Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī. The work represents extensive scriptural research and includes a Sanskrit commentary written by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī called Dig-darśiṇī Tika.

Hari-cakra — Kṛṣṇa’s Sudarśana weapon, the wheel.

Hari-kathā — topics of Lord Hari, Kṛṣṇa.

Hari-kīrtana — the chanting of the names of Lord Hari (Kṛṣṇa). See: Saṅkīrtana.

hari-nāma — The holy names of Kṛṣṇa and the process of chanting them in pure love.

hari-nāma-dīkṣā — Formal initiation of the disciple by the spiritual master into the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.

Hari-nāma-saṅkīrtana — congregational chanting of the holy names of the Supreme Lord.

hari-nāmāmṛta — The nectar of chanting Kṛṣṇa’s names.

Hari-vaṁśa — the appendix to the Mahābhārata. It is a summary of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes by Śrīla Vyāsadeva.

Hari-varṣa — One of the nine divisions of Jambūdvīpa, the central part of the earthly planetary system. Lord Nṛsiṁha and Prahlāda reside in Hari-varṣa.

Haribol — “Chant the holy name.”

haricot beans — a member of the Phaseolus vulgaris species, which includes not only haricot but kidney beans, great northern beans, and pinto beans. These dried white beans, also knows as navy beans, are popular in soups, stews, and casseroles. They are well-used in Italian cooking and are known as fagiolo secco. They are available at grocery stores and supermarkets.

Haridāsa Ṭhākura — A great devotee of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; known as the namācārya, the master who taught the chanting of the holy names by his own example.

Haridāsa Ṭhākura — although born in a Muslim family, he was a confidential associate of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He was so absorbed in the nectar of the Holy Name that he chanted day and night, and it was his regular practice to chant 300,000 names of the Lord daily. Lord Caitanya made him the nāmācārya (teacher of chanting of the holy name).The Muslim government and caste-conscious Hindus attempted to persecute him, but all of their efforts failed, as he was under the direct protection of the Lord.

Haridāsa — ” Kṛṣṇa’s servant,” an epithet both for Uddhava and for Govardhana Hill.

Haridvāra (Hardwar) — a famous place of pilgrimage in the northern foothills of the Himālaya Mountains. This is where . Ajāmila went for purlfication, where Prajāpati Dakṣa performed his sacrifice and lost his daughter Satī, and where some drops of nectar falling from the hand of Mohinī-mūrti, the Lord's incarnation as a woman, landed. Because these drops of nectar fell, there is a Kumbha-melā every twelve years here. Nowadays the town is known as Haradwara, meaning “the gateway to Lord Śiva.”

Haridvāra — One of the seven sacred cities capable of granting liberation. It is located where the Ganges descends from the Himalayas to the plain of central India.

Hariloka — Vaikunṭḥa, the world of the Supreme Lord.

Harināma — Used in ISKCON to refer to public chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.

Harināma-yajña — congregational chanting of the holy names of the Supreme Lord, the recommended sacrifice for this age.

Hariścandra — the twenty-eighth king in the Tretā-yuga. He appeared in the dynasty of the sun as the son of Triśaṅku, and he is celebrated in the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa as the pious king who satisfied Viśvāmitra Muni by sacrificing his kingdom, wife, and son.

harṣa — jubilation, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Haryakṣasee: Hiraṇyākṣa

Hastināpura — The capital of the Kurus, located on the banks of the Gaṅgā, east of what is now Delhi.

Hastināpura — the ancient capital city of Bhārata-varṣa, or India. The Sanskrit word hasti means elephants and in this city there were many elephants kept. It occupies a portion of what is today called New Delhi; The capital city of the Pāṇḍavas. When Dhṛtarāṣṭra wanted to give the Pāṇḍavas half of the kingdom, this part was given.

hāsya-rasa — the indirect relationship of laughing.

haṭha-yoga — The system of practicing sitting postures for sense control.

haṭha-yoga — the practice of postures and breathing exercises for achieving purification and sense control.

hathi — elephant

Hayagrīva — Lord Viṣṇu’s incarnation with the head of a horse. He spoke the lost Vedas to Lord Brahmā.

Hayagriva — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s horse-headed incarnation, who returned the stolen Vedas to Brahmā.

Hayaśīrṣā — the horse-headed incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He spoke the Vedas to Lord Brahmā.

heavenly planets — the higher planets of the universe, residences of the demigods.

hell — hellish planets within this universe meant for the punishment and rectification of the sinful.

Herā-pañcamī festival — celebration of the coming of the goddess of fortune to the Guṇḍicā temple.

Hiḍimba — a Rākṣasa who fought with Bhīma and was killed. This incident is mentioned in the Ādi Parva of the Mahābhārata.

Hiḍimbī — the sister of Hiḍimba. She later married Bhīma and begot a son named Ghaṭotkaca.

Himalayas — The tallest mountains on earth, on India’s northern edge, described as the residence of sages, demigods, and incarnations like Lord Śiva, Nara-Nārāyaṇa, and Vyāsadeva.

Himavān — the great mountain on the northern side of India. The Pāṇḍavas stayed for some time in this region.

Hindu — a newly-concocted name for members of various social and religious groups of India.


hiraṇmaya-mahat-tattva — the total material energy.

Hiraṇyadhanus — the father of Ekalavya, and the King of the Niśadhas, forest dwellers.

Hiraṇyakaśipu — One of the first great demons in the universe. He and his demonic brother Hiraṇyākṣa were previously doorkeepers of Vaikuṇṭha but were cursed when they refused entrance to the four Kumāra sages. Hiraṇyakaśipu’s son Prahlāda was a fully surrendered devotee of Viṣṇu. For persecuting Prahlāda, Hiraṇyakaśipu was killed by Lord Nṛsiṁha.

Hiraṇyakaśipu — a powerful demon and great atheist who tormented his son Prahlāda Mahārāja, a great devotee, and was killed by Kṛṣṇa in His incarnation as Nṛsiṁhadeva (the half man-half lion form of Lord Viṣṇu).

Hiraṇyākṣa — The demonic older brother of Hiraṇyakaśipu. When Hiraṇyākṣa tried to obstruct Lord Varāha from lifting the earth from the depths of the Garbha Ocean, the Lord killed him.

Hiraṇyākṣa — the demoniac son of Kaśyapa who was killed by Lord Varāha.

Hiraṇyavarman — a king of Daśārṇa. His daughter was married to Śikhaṇḍī.

Hlādinī śakti — Kṛṣṇa’s pleasure potency.

Holī — a major Hindu holiday celebrated on the last day of the bright fortnight of the month of Phalgun (February-March). This festival is said to be one of Kṛṣṇa’s favorates. The most popular activity is ther throwing of colored water and powder by participants on each other.

horseradish root — the root of the hardy perennial plant Armoracia rusticana. When scraped or bruised, these stout, white, fleshy, cylindrical roots emit their characteristic highly pungent, penetrating odour, plus volatile oils which cause tears to flow. Horseradish roots are generally peeled and grated and made into sauces to accompany savoury dishes. When choosing horseradish select large roots. The inside core is woody and is not used. Shred or grate the outside of the root, but use straight away and do not cook it, or else the pungent flavour will fade. Dehydrated powdered horseradish can be used as a substitute, but fresh is better. Fresh horseradish root is sometimes available at quality produce markets and greengrocer shops. The powdered horseradish is available at specialty shops and some supermarkets.

Hotravāhana — the maternal grandfather of Ambā. He recommended to Ambā that she approach Paraśurāma to influence Bhīṣma to marry her.

Hoysala — South Indian dynasty that ruled part of South India.

hṛdaya-grantha — lit., “the knot in the heart.” Refers to material bondage of the living entity resulting from sexual attraction.

Hṛṣikeśa — The Supreme Lord Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa, master of everyone’s senses.

Hṛṣīkeśa — a name of Kṛṣṇa meaning “the master of all senses.”

hṛta-jñāna — bereft of intelligence.




idhmavāhat — the devotee who approaches the spiritual master. Idhma refers to wood that is taken to burn as fuel for a fire. A brahmacārī is supposed to take this idhma to ignite the fire used in performing sacrifices. By spiritual instruction a brahmacāri is trained to ignite a fire and offer oblations in the morning. He is supposed to go to the spiritual master to take lessons on transcendental subject matter, and the Vedic injunction is that when approaching the spiritual master one must carry with him fuel to perform yajñas, or sacrifices. The exact Vedic injunction is as follows:

tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet
samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṁ brahma-niṣṭham
[MU 1.2.12]

“To learn transcendental subject matter, one must approach the spiritual master. In doing so, he should carry fuel to burn in sacrifice. The symptom of such a spiritual master is that he is expert in understanding the Vedic conclusion, and therefore he constantly engages in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” (Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 1.2.12) By serving such a bona fide spiritual master, gradually a conditioned soul becomes detached from material enjoyment and invariably makes progress in spiritual realization under the direction of the spiritual master. Those who are misled by the illusory energy are never interested in approaching a spiritual master to make life successful.

idli — steamed dumpling made of ground, fermented rice flour or with lentil dal, usually eaten with coconut chutney.

Ikṣvāku — The first ruler of the earth. He was a son of Vaivasvata Manu.

Ikṣvāku — the son of Manu who was king of the earth in ancient times and to whom Manu spoke Bhagavad-gītā.

Ikṣvāku — the son of the sun-god, Vivasvān, and the first king of the earth planet.

Ilāvṛta-varṣa — The central division of Jambūdvīpa, which in turn is the central part of the earthly planetary system. In the center of Ilāvṛta-varṣa stands the great mountain Sumeru. Lord Śiva resides in Ilāvṛta-varṣa with his consort Durgā. Ilavṛta-varṣa was also the ancient name of India before it was renamed after King Bharata, the son of Lord Ṛṣabhadeva.

Ilāvṛta-varṣa — the original name of this earth planet, before it became known as Bharata-varṣa.

impersonal monismSee: māyāvāda.

indīvara — A blue lotus.

Indra — (Mahendra) The king of the demigods, ruler of Svargaloka. In each manvantara there is a different Indra. The name of the current Indra is Purandara.

Indra — the chief demigod of heaven and presiding deity of rain, and the father of Arjuna. He is the son of Aditi.

Indra-nīla — gems decorating Kṛṣṇa’s flute.

Indraloka — the planet where Lord Indra resides.

indranīla — Sapphire.

Indraprasthasee: Hastinapur.

indriya-saṁyama — curbing one’s senses.

Irāvān — the son of Arjuna by Ulūpī. He was killed by the Rākṣasa, Alambuṣa, during the Kurukṣetra battle.

Īśa — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Īśa-tattva — the Supreme Lord.

īśānukathā — scriptural information about the Lord and His devotees.

īśāvasya(īśa — the Lord + vasya — control) the concept that everything is owned and controlled by the Lord and should be used in His service.

ISKCON — Acronym for the International Society for Kṛṣṇa Consciousness.

ISKCON — the abbreviation for the International Society for Krishna Consciousness; the Hare Krishna Movement. The society was founded in New York, 1966, by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda, who came by boat, the Jaladuta from Calcutta in 1965, with just forty rupees and a trunk full of books. Sumati Morarji kindly donated his passage. See also: Śrīla Prabhupāda.

Īśopaniṣad — One of the 108 principal Vedic scriptures known as the Upaniṣads.

Īśopaniṣad — one of the 108 principal Vedic scriptures known as the Upaniṣads.

Iṣṭā — the performance of public welfare activities such as digging wells or planting trees.

Iṣṭa-goṣṭhī — Discussions on the teachings of the spiritual master among his disciples.

Īśvara Purī — Lord Caitanya’s spiritual master.

īśvara — A controller. Kṛṣṇa is parameśvara, the supreme controller.

īśvara — a controller. Kṛṣṇa is Parameśvara, the Supreme Controller.

itihāsa — a historical account.

Itihāsas — Epic histories, including the Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa. In contrast to the more encyclopedic Purāṇas, each Itihāsa usually tells one heroic story.




Jaḍa Bharata — See Bharata.

Jaḍa Bharata — Bharata Mahārāja in his final birth as a renounced brāhmaṇa. He gave wonderful spiritual instruction to Mahārāja Rahūgaṇa.

jaḍa-yoga — A process of self-realization by which the yogi completely withdraws his senses and consciousness from all material engagements, exhibiting a total disregard for the safety and maintenance of his material body.

jāḍya — invalidity, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Jagad-guru — the spiritual master of the whole world.

Jagad-īśa — the Supreme Lord, who is the proprietor of all the universes.

Jagāi and Mādhāi — Two debauchees whom Lord Nityānanda converted into Vaiṣṇavas.

Jagāi and Mādhāi — two great debauchees whom Lord Nityānanda converted into Vaiṣṇavas.

jagamohana — the area directly in front of the central altar of an Orissan temple.

Jagannatha Misra — Kṛṣṇa’s eternal father, Nada Maharaj of Kṛṣṇa -lila.

Jagannātha Purī — See Purī.

Jagannātha Purī — place of pilgrimage on the east coast of India where the deity of Jagannātha is worshiped

Jagannātha — (-deva) ” Lord of the universe,” an ancient Deity of Kṛṣṇa. He was established along with His brother Balarāma and sister Subhadrā in the holy city of Purī, on the coast of Orissa. Caitanya Mahāprabhu resided in Purī and worshiped Lord Jagannātha.

Jagannātha — the Supreme Lord, who is Lord of the universe. A particular Deity form of Lord Krṣṇa, seemingly fashioned from wood and brightly painted, which has been worshipped for many centuries in Jagannātha Purī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to daily visit Lord Jagannātha and see Him in a mood of intense separation, in the mood of Rādhārāṇī, who was parted from her beloved Kṛṣṇa most of her days.

Jagannātha-ratha — A chariot (ratha) on which the Deity of Jagannātha rides, used in a festival celebrating Kṛṣṇa’s return to Vṛndāvana from Dvārakā.

jāgara — the ecstatic symptom of wakefulness.

jagat — the material universe.

Jaimini — A prominent sage, a disciple of Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. Jaimini wrote the Mīmāmsā-sūtras, which established the philosophical school of Vedic textual interpretation.

Jaiminī — the atheistic propounder and philosopher of Karma-mimāṁsā philosophy, and author of the Karma-mīmāṁsā-sūtras, which explain the Vedas in ritualistic terms, and advocate material work as the purpose of life. He theorized that if fruitive activity is performed nicely, then God is obliged to give the results.

Jains — religious sect based on impersonalist ideas.

jajmani — system of patron-client relationships.

jalebi — A syrupy fried pastry in the shape of a tubular swirl.

Jāmbavān — One of the principal devotees of Lord Rāmacandra who helped Him defeat Rāvaṇa. He had a bearlike body.

Jāmbavatī — The daughter of Jāmbavān. After Kṛṣṇa fought Jaāmbavān over the Syamantaka jewel, Jāmbavān surrendered to Kṛṣṇa and offered Him Jāmbavatī, who became one of Kṛṣṇa’s eight principal queens.

Jāmbavatī — the daughter of Jāmbavān. She is one of the eight principal queens of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

jambīra — a citrus fruit with numerous seeds.

jambūEugenia jambos L, rose apple, an evergreen tree with large, creamy-white flowers and oval fruits that smell like roses.

Jana-nivāsa — name for Kṛṣṇa indicating that He is the ultimate resort of all living entities.

Janaka Mahārāja — considered one of the mahājanas, the great self-realized king of Mithilā, and the father of Sītā-devī, consort of Lord Rāmacandra.

Jānakī — Sītā, the daughter of King Janaka and wife of Lord Rāmacandra.

Janaloka — The planet above Svarga and Mahar that is inhabited by altruistic celibates.

Janaloka — a heavenly planet.

Janamejaya — Parīkṣit’s eldest son, the next emperor of the Kuru dynasty. After Parīkṣit died, Janamejaya heard the Mahābārata from Dvaipāyana Vyāsa’s disciple Vaiśampāyana.

Janamejaya — the son of King Parīkṣit.

Janārdana — Lord Viṣṇu, the protector of His devotees and destroyer of their enemies.

Janārdana — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who is the original abode and protector of all living beings”.

Janassee: Janaloka above

Janaśarmā — A poor, greedy brāhmaṇa who became a pure devotee of Kṛṣṇa by the good association of Gopa-kumāra. This is described in Part Two of Bṛhad-Bhāgavatāmṛta.

Jaṅgama-nārāyaṇa — moving Nārāyaṇa.

Janmāṣṭamī — The festival of Kṛṣṇa’s birth.

Janmāṣṭamī — the celebration of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s appearance in the material world;  the eighth lunar day of the dark fortnight in the month of Bhadra (August-September). The festival of Kṛṣṇa’s birthday.

japa — Chanting of a mantra quietly to oneself.

japa — the soft recitation of the Kṛṣṇa’s holy names as a private meditation, with the aid of 108 prayer beads.

jarā — old age.

Jarāsandha — A powerful enemy of Kṛṣṇa’s, the emperor of the Magadha kingdom. Yudhiṣṭhira could not perform the Rājasūya sacrifice without first neutralizing Jarāsandha’s opposition, so Kṛṣṇa arranged for Jarāsandha to be killed by Bhīma.

Jarāsandha — the King of Magadha. He was killed by Bhīma. (Sabhā Parva in Mahābhārata)

jari — Ornate embroidery with silver or gold thread.

jāta-karma — a purificatory ceremony performed at the birth of a child.

Jaṭāsura — a Rākṣasa who disguised himself as a brāhmaṇa and tried to kidnap Draupadī and four of the Pāṇḍavas except for Bhīma. Bhīma challenged him and killed him in single combat.

Jaṭāyu — A vulture who tried to stop Rāvaṇa from kidnapping Sītādevī. Mortally wounded by Rāvaṇa, he died in the arms of the grateful Lord Rāmacandra.

Jaṭāyu — a devotee of Lord Rāmacandra who was the king of the vultures, and the brother of Sampāti. He fought with the demon Rāvaṇa when the latter kidnapped Sītā, the consort of Lord Rāmacandra.

Jaya and Vijaya — The guards of a main gate of Vaikuṇṭha. When the four Kumāra sages tried to enter Vaikuṇṭha, Jaya and Vijaya stopped them and were cursed to fall down into the material world. Thus they were successively born as the demons Hiraṇyakṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu, Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa, and Śiśupāla and Dantavakra.

Jaya and Vijaya — two doorkeepers of Vaikuṇṭha who were cursed on account of offending the four Kumāra Ṛṣis, and who thus both had to take birth three times in the material world as great demons, Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa in Satya-yuga, Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa in the next yuga, Tretā-yuga, and Śiśupāla and Dantavakra at the end of Dvāpara-yuga.

jaya — ” Victory!” or “All glories!”

Jaya — a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra who was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Jaya — an exclamation meaning “All victory to you!” or “All glories to you!”

jāyā — intelligence.

 Jaya — A gatekeeper in one of the Vaikuṇṭha planets who, along with another gatekeeper (Vijaya), was cursed to take birth as a demon.

Jayadeva Gosvāmī — a great Vaisnava poet and author of Gita-govinda.

Jayadratha — The king of Sindhu-deṣa and brother-in-law of Duryodhana. He once kidnapped Draupadī, the wife of the Pāṇḍavas, and so the Pāṇḍavas captured and humiliated him. He was a commander in the Kuru army at Kurukṣetra and was killed by Arjuna.

Jayadratha — the King of Sindhu. He was killed by Arjuna in the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Jāyanteyas — nine great sages, sons of King Bharata, who were also known as the nine Yogendras.

Jayatsena — the son of Jarāsandha. He took the side of Duryodhana in the Kurukṣetra war and was killed by Abhimanyu. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Jhulana yatra — the swing festival beginning on the third day of the month of Shravan (July-August) and lasting for a fortnight. The swings, usually made from gold or silver, are hung in temples on which the Deities are swung during kirtan by the guests and Vaisnavas.

ji — honorific suffix added to almost any name as a term of endearment

Jīmūta — a wrestler who was killed by Bhīma during a wrestling match in the kingdom of Virāṭa.

jīrṇa-sarpa — the fatigued air of life.

jitendriya — one who has conquered the senses.

jīva (jīvātmā) — the living entity, who is an eternal soul, individual but part and parcel of the Supreme Lord.

Jīva Gosvāmī — One of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, principal followers of Caitanya Mahāprabhu who rediscovered the forgotten places of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes in Vraja, reestablished the worship of the principal Vraja Deities, and made literary contributions to establish the science of Kṛṣṇa consciousness for the modern age. Jīva Gosvāmī was the greatest scholar of the Gauḍīya sampradāya. His most important works were his six Sandharbhas and Gopāla-campū.

Jīva Gosvāmī — one of the Six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana and the nephew of Rupa and Sanātana Gosvāmīs. His father, Anupama, died when the boy was very young. He grew up absorbed in the worship of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Lord Caitanya instructed him in a dream to proceed to Navadvīpa, and there he toured that sacred place in the association of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu. He then went to Benares to study Sanskrit, and from there to Vṛndāvana to be under the shelter of his uncles. He became a disciple of Rūpa Gosvāmī and wrote eighteen major works on Vaiṣṇava philosophy, comprising more than 400,000 verses. He is considered by many philosophers and Sanskritists to be the greatest scholar who ever lived.

jīva jago — wake up sleeping souls.

jīva — An eternal finite spirit soul, qualitatively equal with the Supreme Soul.

jīva-bhūta — the living force within matter. See also: jīva

jīva-hiṁsā — envy of other living entities.

jīva-māyā — the living entities.

jīva-tattva — the living entities, atomic parts of the Supreme Lord.

jīvan-mukta — a person who is already liberated even while living in his present body.

jīvātmā — See jīva.

jñāna — Knowledge.

jñāna — knowledge. Material jñāna does not go beyond the material body. Transcendental jñāna discriminates between matter and spirit. Perfect jñāna is knowledge of the body, the soul and the Supreme Lord.

jñāna-bhakta — A worshiper of God whose devotion is mixed with the motive of acquiring knowledge for his own liberation.

Jñāna-kāṇḍa — the division of the Vedas dealing with empirical speculation in pursuit of truth; also, such speculation itself; the portions of the Vedas containing knowledge of Brahman, or spirit.

jñāna-mārga — the cultivation of knowledge.

jñāna-śakti — the power to distribute transcendental knowledge.

jñāna-yoga — The spiritual discipline of cultivating knowledge of pure spirit.

jñāna-yoga — the process of approaching the Supreme by the cultivation of knowledge; the predominantly empirical process of linking with the Supreme, which is executed when one is still attached to mental speculation.

Jnānagamya — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who is understood through knowledge of the Vedas.”

jñānī — A practitioner of jñāna-yoga, or, more generally, any learned person.

jñānī — one who is engaged in the cultivation of knowledge (especially by philosophical speculation). Upon attaining perfection, a jñānī surrenders to Kṛṣṇa.

Juhu Beach — Location of the ISKCON temple in Mumbai, India.

jvalitā — the stage exhibited by a devotee when more than two or three transcendental transformations are manifest and it is possible to conceal them with difficulty.

Jyotiḥ-śāstra — the Vedic science of astronomy.

Jyotir-linga — one of the 12 selfmanifested Śiva-lingas




Kabandha — a son of Śrī. Indra once stuffed his legs and head into his belly as a punishment. Indra foretold that until his long arms were cut off by Lord Rāma (which later occurred), Kabandha would not achieve peace.

Kacchapī-vīṇā — the stringed instrument of Rādhārāṇī.

kachauri — A small, disk-shaped pastry stuffed with spiced vegetables and deep-fried.

kadambaAnthocephalus indicus, a tree whose flowers appear in balls during the rainy season.

Kaḍāra — the ointment of Lord Jagannātha, the remnants of which were used by Lord Caitanya.

Kadru — wife of Kasyapa and mother of the race of serpents.

Kailāsa — A great mountain on which Lord Śiva resides, south of Mount Sumeru.

Kailasa — the home of Lord Śiva in the Himalayas.

kaiśora — The age between eleven and fifteen years.

Kaiśora — Kṛṣṇa’s age from the eleventh to the fifteenth year.

Kaiṭabha — A great demon who with his brother Madhu stole the Vedas from Brahmā at the beginning of creation and was killed by Viṣṇu.

kaitava-dharma — cheating religion.

kaivalya — the impersonal liberation of merging into the spiritual effulgence of Brahman emanating from the Lord.

kaivalyam — the state of realization of one's constitutional position as part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, which is preliminary to manifestation of activities on the platform of devotional service.

kajjala — a preparation of lampblack used to darken the edges of the eyelids; kohl.

kaju — cashew.

kāka — crow.

kala namaksee: black salt

Kalā — a form of the Lord that is an expansion of the Lord's original form.

kala — eternal time.

kāla-sarpa — the snake of time.

kālakanyā — the invalidity of old age.

kalamata olives — Large, ink-black olives with pointed ends and shiny skin, named after the seaside town of Southern Greece where they are grown. Popular in Greek cuisine, they are flavoursome and full-bodied.

Kālanemi — A demon killed by Lord Viṣṇu in the battle between Bali and Indra. In his next life he became Kaṁsa.

Kālayavana — A barbarian king who tried to attack Kṛṣṇa. Not wanting to touch a barbarian, Kṛṣṇa arranged for him to be killed by King Mucukunda, who burned Kālayavana to ashes with his glance.

Kali — (-yuga) The fourth of four repeating ages that form the basic cycles of universal time. In each Kali-yuga the world degrades into quarrel and dishonesty. The present Kali-yuga began 5,000 years ago and will continue for another 427,000 years. Kali is also the name of the ruler of the yuga.

Kali — The personification of quarrel and hypocrisy.

Kālīsee: Durgā

Kali — the black intense form of Lord Śiva's wife. She wears a necklace of skulls. Demigoddess to whom worshipers may offer meat. Also see: Durgā.

Kali-yuga — the “Age of Quarrel and Hypocrisy ” The fourth and last age in the cycle of a mahā-yuga. This is the present age in which we are now living. It began 5,000 years ago and lasts for a total of 432,000 years. It is characterized by irreligious practice and stringent material miseries. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam the age is personified as an evil black man who tries to kill a helpless cow and bull. The four legs of the cow represent the four principles of religiosity — namely, truth, cleanliness, mercy and austerity. The bull represents religion itself.

Kālindī — The river Yamunā, who became one of Kṛṣṇa’s eight principal queens in Dvārakā.

Kaliṅga — a province in ancient India.

Kāliya — A many-headed serpent who poisoned a lake within the Yamunā. Kṛṣṇa subdued the serpent by dancing on his hoods and then banished him from Vraja.

Kāliya — the many-headed serpent chastised by Lord Kṛṣṇa for poisoning a section of the Yamunā River.

Kalki — He is the tenth incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu. He arrives on a white horse at the end of Kali-yuga to annihilate all the remaining atheists.

kalmaṣa — sin.

kalonji seeds — also known as nigella or black onion seed no relation to the  onion. Very often these small, black, tear-drop-shaped seeds are confused with, or called, black cumin seeds, which in fact, they are not. Kalonji seeds (Nigella satival) have a peppery taste and,  when heated, have an herbal aroma. They are an important ingredient in the Bengali spice blend called  panch puran. They are available at Indian grocery stores

kalpa — A unit of cosmic time, equal to one day of Brahmā (or one night), or 4, 320,000,000 years.

kalpa — Brahmā's daytime, 4,320,000,000 years.

kalpa-avatāraslīlā-avatāras appearing in each day of Brahmā.

kalpa-vṛkṣa — wish-fulfilling trees.

kāma — Sense gratification; lust.

kāma — a high fever.

kāma — lust; the desire to gratify one’s own senses.

kāma-bīja — The seed of a particular gāyatri-mantra.

kāma-dhenus — desire-fulfilling cows in Vṛndāvana.

kāma-gāyatrī — a Vedic hymn which is composed of twenty-four and a half syllables.

kāma-lekha — exchanges of letters between a young boy and young girl concerning their awakening of attachment for one another.

kāma-muḍha — One who has lost his sense or is infatuated by the lust of attraction for sense gratification.

Kāmadeva — Cupid.

kāmadhenu — spiritual cows, in the spiritual world, which yield unlimited quantities of milk.

Kamalā — The goddess Lakṣmī, eternal consort of the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu.

kamaṇḍalu — A clay or wooden waterpot, as carried by sannyāsīs and brahmacārīs.

kamaṇḍalu — the water-pot carried by sannyāsīs.

Kāmbhoja — a province situated in the north western part of India.

Kāmboja — The province of Afghanistan now known as Kabul. At the time of the Kurukṣetra war, its king was Sudakṣiṇa.

Kāmpilya — the capital of King Drupada.

Kaṁsa — The king of Bhoja and son of Ugrasena who usurped the throne of Mathurā. After sending many demons to Vraja to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, he finally brought the brothers to Mathurā for a rigged wrestling tournament, where Kṛṣṇa killed him.

Kaṁsa — a demoniac king of the Bhoja dynasty and maternal uncle of Kṛṣṇa. The son of Ugrasena. He imprisoned his father and took charge of the kingdom. He killed the first six children of Devakī. Kaṁsa was killed by Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

kāmya-karma — Optional Vedic rituals performed for personal gain.

Kaṇāda — the propounder of Vaiśeṣika philosophy, which states that atoms are the original cause of the creation.

kāṇaphāṭā-yogīs — beggars similar to gypsies who wear ivory earrings.

Kāñcī — A sacred city of southeastern India. It is known in Tamil as Kanjivaram. Rāmanujācārya resided there for some time.

Kāṇḍas — three divisions of the Vedas.

Kaṇika — a brāhmaṇa minister of King Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He advised the King to kill his enemies by any means. (Ādi Parva in Mahābhārata)

kaniṣṭha — A neophyte devotee.

kaniṣṭha-adhikārī — a neophyte devotee in lowest stage of Vaiṣṇava life.

Kaṅka — the name Yudhiṣṭhira used during the last year of exile in the kingdom of Virāṭa.

kantaki fruit — A small, golden fruit that grows on a thorny, vinelike bush.

kaṇṭhi-mālā — Beads worn around the neck by devotees of Kṛṣṇa.

Kanyākumārī — the virgin maiden; another name of the wife of Lord Śiva.

kapha — mucus, one of the three major elements of the gross body.

Kāpī — the sister of Kṛpācārya and the wife of Droṇa. Her son was Aśvatthāmā.

Kapila — (-deva) A white-complexioned incarnation of the Supreme Lord who appeared in the Satya-yuga as the son of Kardama and Devahūti. He taught His mother sāṅkhya-yoga, the path of devotional service through systematic study of the material creation.

Kapila — an incarnation of Kṛṣṇa who appeared in Satya-yuga as the son of Devahūti and Kardama Muni and expounded the devotional Sāṅkhya philosophy, the analysis of matter and spirit, as a means of cultivating  devotional service to the Lord. (There is also an atheist named Kapila, but he is not an incarnation of the Lord.)

Kāraṇa Ocean — the corner of the spiritual universe in which Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu lies down to create the entirety of material universes.

karaṇāpāṭava — imperfection of the material senses.

karaṅga — waterpot carried by sannyāsīs.

Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu — The expansion of the Lord from whom all material universes emanate. Also known as Mahā-Viṣṇu.

Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu — Mahā-Viṣṇu, the expansion of the Supreme Lord from whom all material universes emanate. He lies within the Causal Ocean and breathes out innumerable universes.

karatālas — Hand cymbals used during kīrtana.

karatālas — hand cymbals used in kīrtana.

Kardama Muni — the father of Lord Kapila and one of the chief forefathers of the population of the universe.

Kardama — The ancient sage who married Devahūti and fathered the incarnation of God known as Kapila.

karela — A bitter gourd, valued in Vedic cuisine for its beneficial effect on the digestion.

karhai — a deep, rounded pan with handles on both sides, used for deep-frying or pan-frying.

karma — Material action and its reactions.

karma — 1. material action performed according to scriptural regulations; 2. action pertaining to the development of the material body; 3. any material action which will incur a subsequent reaction; 4. the material reaction one incurs due to fruitive activities; This Sanskrit word means 'action' or, more specifically, any material action that brings a reaction binding us to the material world. According to the law of karma, if we cause pain and suffering to other living beings, we must endure pain and suffering in return.

karma-bandha — the bondage of fruitive activities.

karma-bandhana — bondage to the reactions of fruitive activities.

karma-bhūmī — Bhārata-varṣa, the land where men work in accordance with the Vedic system of sacrifice.

karma-kāṇḍa — The portions of the Vedas that teach ritual sacrifices for material success in this life and the next.

Karma-kāṇḍa — the division of the Vedas which deals with fruitive activities performed for the purpose of gradual purification of the grossly entangled materialist.

Karma-kāṇḍīya — relating to karma-kāṇḍa.

karma-mīmāṁsā — one of the six main Vedic philosophies. It states that the subtle laws of nature reward or punish one according to how one acts, without reference to an independent God.

karma-niṣṭhas — those who consider devotional service to be fruitive activities.

karma-tyāga — the giving of the results of karma to the Supreme Lord.

karma-vīra — a successful fruitive worker.

karma-yoga — The process of God realization by dedicating the fruits of one’s work to God.

karma-yoga — action in devotional service; the path of God realization through dedicating the fruits of one’s work to God.

karmātmaka — one whose mind is colored with fruitive activity.

karmendriyas — The “active senses,” the faculties of speech, motion, and evacuation, located in the tongue, arms, legs, genitals, and anus.

karmendriyas — the working senses.

karmī — One whose aim in life is to achieve material elevation by acting dutifully, especially by performing Vedic sacrifices.

karmī — one engaged in kārma (fruitive activity); a materialist.

karmīs — fruitive laborers.

Karṇa — The first son of Kuntī, born to her by the sun-god before her marriage to Pāṇḍu. She abandoned the infant Karṇa by floating him in a basket on a river, and he was discovered and adopted by a mixed-caste chariot driver. Karṇa became an arch-rival of the Pāṇḍavas, who were unaware of his origin. In the Kurukṣetra battle, he was made the Kuru commander-in-chief after the death of Droṇa, and Arjuna killed him.

Karṇa — the eldest son of Kuntī before her marriage to Pāṇḍu. She had received a mantra from Durvāsā Muni that she could call any deva and conceive children. In her innocence she called Sūrya, the sun-god and conceived Karṇa. She was forced to abandon the child out of fear of her relatives. Karṇa was then raised by Adhiratha and Rādhā. He fought against the Pāṇḍavas and was killed by Arjuna in the battle of Kurukṣetra.

karṇikāraPterosper mum acerifolium, a tree with fragrant yellow flowers often used for dressing the hair.

Kārṣṇas — the members of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s family.

Kartavirya Arjuna — A demonic thousand-armed king who tyrannized much of the world but was killed by Lord Paraśurama after murdering Lord Paraśurāma’s father, the sage Jamadagni.

Kārtikka — The Vedic month corresponding to October†“November in which Lord Dāmodara is worshiped.

Kārttika — the name of a Vedic month occurring around October-November of the solar calendar, in which the Dāmodara form of Lord Kṛṣṇa is worshiped.

Kārttikeya — the younger son of Lord Śiva and Pārvatī. He is the presiding deity of warfare. Also known as Subrahmanya or Skanda.

karuṇa-rasa — The mood of compassion, one of the seven indirect devotional relationships with the Supreme Lord.

karuṇa-rasa — the indirect relationship of compassion.

kāśa — Saccharum spontaneum, a tall grass.

kāśamdi — a kind of pickle.

Kāśī — Vārāṇasī (Benares), the favorite city of Lord Śiva, located on the river Gaṅgā between Prayāga and Patna. It is one of the seven holy places that grants liberation.

Kāśī — one of the oldest sacred places of learning in India. The Purāṇic name of the modern city of Benares in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the place of Lord Śiva and generally the followers of Lord Śiva live there. Ambā, Ambikā and Ambālikā were abducted by Bhīṣma from this city. This was the site of Lord Caitanya's famous conversion of the leading impersonalist scholar of the day, Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī.

Kaśyapa — One of the original Prajāpatis, the populators of the universe. Son of Brahmā’s first mind-born son, Marici, he married thirteen of Dakṣa’s daughters and fathered many demigods, demons, and species of animals.

Kaśyapa — a great saint who was the father of many demigods and also of the Supreme Lord’s incarnation Vāmanadeva; one of the seven mental sons of Lord Brahmā.

Kaṭha Upaniṣad — one of the 108 Vedic scriptures known as Upaniṣads.

kathā — Sacred narrations.

katha — stories and discussion on religious themes, especially from the purunas.

Kathakali — Keralan religious dance.

Kātyāyanī — A form of the goddess Durgā the young gopīs worshiped in Vṛndāvana to obtain Kṛṣṇa as their husband.

Kātyāyanī — the material energy personified. She is also known as Durgā and Kālī and by many other names.

kauḍis — small conchshells.

kaumāra — The age of up to five years.

Kaunteya — the son of Kuntī (usually refers to Arjuna).

kaupīna — Loincloth.

kaupīna — the thick belt and underwear worn by saintly persons.

Kaurava — The descendants of Kuru who fought against the Pāṇḍavas in the battle of Kurukṣetra.

Kauravas — the descendants of King Kuru who fought against the Pāṇḍavas in the Battle of Kurukṣetra.

Kauśalyā — One of the three wives of King Daśaratha of Ayodhyā. She gave birth to Daśaratha’s eldest son, Lord Rāmacandra.

Kaustubha gem — a jewel worn by Lord Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa, on His chest.

kaustubha — A jewel worn by Lord Viṣṇu on His chest. It is one of the few marks visibly distinguishing Him from His devotees in Vaikuṇṭha.

Kavacī — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Karṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Kavi-karṇapūra Gosvāmī — a noted sixteenth-century author of Sanskrit poems and plays. He is one of the leading followers of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

kavirāja — An Ayurvedic doctor.

kavya — Food ritually offered to the ancestors.

Kayādhu — The wife of Hiraṇyakaśipu and mother of Prahlāda.

Kāyastha caste — a Hindu community who are expert in managing business and government affairs; they are very reliable and faithful servants.

kejap manis — a thick, sweet or salty variety of soy sauce from Indonesia featured in Indonesian and Malaysian cooking.

Kekaya — A kingdom in the northwest of Punjab, between the Śatadrū and Vipāśā rivers. Kekaya princes fought on both sides of the Kurukṣetra battle.

Kekaya — a province in ancient India. Five princes from this country joined with Yudhiṣṭhira in the battle of Kurukṣetra, and they were killed by Droṇa. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Keśa-avatāras — the false story of the incarnations of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma from respective black and white hairs of Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu.

Kesava Gaudiya Matha — This temple was established by Srila Bhaktiprajnana Kesava Gosvami Maharaja, the sannyasa-guru of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. The presiding Deities are Sri Sri Radha-vinoda-vihari.

Kesava Kasmir — learned scholar in Caitanya-lila.

Keśava — Kṛṣṇa (or Viṣṇu), who has beautiful hair (keśa), who is the Lord of both Brahma (Ka) and Śiva (Īśa), and who killed the demon Keśi.

Keśava — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, who has fine, long black hair.

Keśi — A demon who assumed the form of a wild horse and attacked Vraja. Kṛṣṇa thrust His hand into the demon’s mouth and killed him.

Keśī — a demon who attacked the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana in the form of a wild horse but was killed by Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Keśi-tīrtha — The sacred spot in Vṛndavana on the shore of the Yamuna where Kṛṣṇa killed the demon Keśi.

kevala — devotional platform of seeing the unlimited potency of Kṛṣṇa but still considering oneself equal with Him; pure, uncontaminated emotion.

Kevalādvaita-vādīs — Māyāvādī philosophers.

kewra essence — this essential flavouring is derived from the shrub known as screw pine, (Pandanus tectorius), which grows in the humid swampy backwater areas of South India and South East Asia. The flowers have an exquisite rose-like perfume. In Indian cooking, kewra essence is used to flavour sweet dishes. It is available in the form of kewra essence or kewra water at Indian grocers.

khadi — Homespun cotton cloth.

khāḍi — cotton cloth.

khājā — a kind of light sweetmeat.

khaṇḍa — a valley between two mountains;  a section of a book.

Khāṇḍava — A forest near the Pāṇḍava capital, Indraprastha. Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna fought against Indra to allow the fire-god, Agni, to consume the forest.

Khāṇḍavaprastha — another name for Indraprastha. The forest in the part of the Kuru kingdom was devoured by Agni with the help of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna.

khañjana — Awagtail; symbol of restlessness and the eyes of the beloved.

khasādayaḥ — classes of lowborn men.

Khaṭvāṅga — a saintly king who is famous for attaining unalloyed Kṛṣṇa consciousness just moments before his death.

Khetari — birthplace and residence of the great Vaiṣṇava Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura and site of a magnificent festival and Deity installation in which thousands of devotees took part, located in the West Bengal district of Rajasahi.

Kīcaka — brother-in-law of King Virāṭa. He was killed during the last year of the Pāṇḍavas exile in the kingdom of Virāṭa. When he lusted after Draupadī, he was killed by Bhīma.

kidney beans — the popular kidney-shaped red bean from the plant Phaseolus vulgaris. Kidney beans can be used in many types of cuisine — as an alternative to borlotti beans in Italian cooking, and as an alternative to pinto beans in Mexican-style cooking, or in stews, soups, and casseroles. Red kidney beans are known as rajma in India and are featured in the spicy chili-style dish of the same name popular in the Punjab. They are available at any grocery store or supermarket.

Kikaṭa — the present state of Gaya, in north-central India.

kikhi bird — Indian bluejay.

Kimpuruṣa-loka — (-varṣa) One of the nine divisions of Jambūdvīpa, the central part of the earthly planetary system. Hanumān resides there.

Kimpuruṣas — A class of celestial beings who have half-human, half-animal bodies.

Kindama — a sage who was killed by Pāṇḍu in the forest. Kindama had taken the form of a deer and was enjoying sex with his wife. Pāṇḍu, thinking the deer fit for sacrifice, killed the deer and its mate. Before leaving his body, Kindama cursed Pāṇḍu to die while he was enjoying his wife.

Kinnaras — minor demigods inhabiting the heavenly planets. They can change their form at will.

Kirāta — a mountainous region near modern Udaipur, Rajasthan, where Arjuna did penance. Lord Śiva took the form of a Kirāta and fought with Arjuna.

Kirāṭas — A degraded tribe of mountain-dwelling hunters.

Kirīṭī — another name for Arjuna.

Kirmīra — a fierce Rākṣasa and the brother of Baka. He was killed by Bhīma during their exile in the forest. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

kīrtana — The primary devotional practice of chanting the Supreme Lord’s glories.

Kīrtana — glorification of the Supreme Lord. Narrating or singing the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His Holy Names; the devotional process of chanting the names and glories of the Supreme Lord.

kīrtana — glorification of the Supreme Lord; the devotional process of chanting.

Kiṣkindha — The capital city of the Vānara ape-men, ruled during the time of Lord Rāmacandra first by Vāli and later by Vāli’s brother Sugrīva. The Vānara army, led by Sugrīva and ministers like Hanumān, helped Lord Rāma defeat Rāvaṇa.

kiśora — A boy aged ten to fifteen.

Kiśora-gopāla — Kṛṣṇa as a young boy.

kitava — a great cheater.

Kleśa-ghnī — description of devotional service indicating that it reduces or nullifies all kinds of suffering.

Kosala — The kingdom of north-central India ruled by great kings like Sagara, Bhagīratha, Khaṭvānga, Raghu, Daśaratha, and Lord Rāmacandra. Its capital was Ayodhya.

Kosala — a prosperous kingdom in ancient India. Bhīmasena conquered this country for Yudhiṣṭhira before the Rājasūya sacrifice.

koṭī — ten million.

Kovil — temple in Tamil Nadu.

Kratu — one of the seven great sages who were born directly from Lord Brahmā.

Krishnanagar — a town that is the government headquarters of a sub-division of the West Bengal district of Nadia. It is about ten miles east of Śrī Māyapura.

kriyā-hīna — devoid of spiritual behavior.

kriyā-vidhāna — injunctions for Vedic rituals.

krodha — anger.

kṛpā — Mercy.

kṛpā-siddha — one who as attained perfection by the mercy of superior authorities.

kṛpā-siddhi — perfection attained simply by the blessings of the Lord or a great devotee.

krpā-siddihi — perfection attained simply by the blessings of a great devotee or transcendentalist.

Kṛpācārya — the son of Śaradvān. He was a brāhmaṇa by birth, but was inclined to the duties of a kṣatriya. He learned the Dhanur Veda from his father, and taught the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and the sons of Pāṇḍu what he had learned from his father. Due to politics he took the side of Duryodhana during the battle of Kurukṣetra. He later became the teacher of Mahārāja Parīkṣit.

kṛpaṇa — A miser.

kṛpaṇa — a miserly man who wastes his life by not striving for spiritual realization.

Kṛṣṇa Caitanya — The name received by Śrī Caitanya Mahaprabhu from His sannyāsa-guru, Śrī Keśava Bhāratī. See Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana — another name of Śrīla Vyāsadeva.

Kṛṣṇa — (-candra) The Supreme Personality of Godhead in His original form, enjoying as a youthful cowherd with His family and friends in Vṛndavana and later as a valiant prince in Mathura and Dvāraka.

Kṛṣṇā — another name of Draupadī.

Kṛṣṇa — the original, two-armed form of the Supreme Lord, who is the origin of all expansions.

kṛṣṇa-ākarṣiṇī — description of pure devotional service indicating that it gradually attracts Kṛṣṇa toward the devotee.

Kṛṣṇa-bahirmukha — bereft of one’s relationship with Kṛṣṇa.

Kṛṣṇa-Balarāma — The presiding Deities of the ISKCON temple in Vṛndavana, India.

Kṛṣṇa-bhakta — a devotee of Kṛṣṇa.

Kṛṣṇa-bhakti — devotion to Kṛṣṇa.

Kṛṣṇa-bhāvita — Absorption in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Kṛṣṇa-dāsa — servant of Kṛṣṇa.

Kṛṣṇa-karma — doing all work for the sake of Kṛṣṇa.

kṛṣṇa-kathā — Discussions about Kṛṣṇa.

Kṛṣṇa-kathā — discussions or topics spoken by or about Kṛṣṇa.

Kṛṣṇa-kīrtana — the chanting of Kṛṣṇa’s name and pastimes.

kṛṣṇa-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes.

Kṛṣṇa-līlā — the transcendental pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

kṛṣṇa-nāma — Kṛṣṇa’s holy name.

Kṛṣṇa-pāriṣada — associates of the Lord.

Kṛṣṇa-prasādamsee: Prasādam

kṛṣṇa-prema — Pure ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa. It is the perfection of life.

Kṛṣṇa-prema-dhana — the treasure of love for Kṛṣṇa.

Kṛṣṇa-viraha — the feeling of spiritual separation from Kṛṣṇa.

Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī — The author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta.

Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmi — author of the immortal Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, considered the greatest work on the life and philosophy of Lord Caitanya. He composed it in his nineties, despite bodily infirmity. This book is especially revered by Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas. He was ordered by Lord Nityānanda in a dream to go to Vṛndāvana where he studied the Gosvāmī literature under the direction of Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī.

kṛṣṇāliṅgita-vigraha — the spiritual master, who is always embraced by Kṛṣṇa.

kṛṣṇaloka — The eternal abode of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Krṣnaloka — the planet in the spiritual world where Krṣna resides. See also: Goloka Vṛndāvana

Kṛṣṇe matir astu — greeting of Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs meaning “Let your attention be on Kṛṣṇa.”

Kṛta — (-yuga) The first of four repeating ages that form the basic cycles of universal time. During its 1, 728,000 years, purity and spiritual competence are prominent. It is also called Satya-yuga.

Kṛta-yuga — Satya-yuga.

Kṛtavarmā — a king of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty, and the son of Hādīka. He took the side of Duryodhana during the battle of Kurukṣetra. He was killed during the fratricidal war of the Yadus.

kṣara — perishable.

Kṣatradeva — the son of Śikhaṇḍī. He was killed by Lakṣmaṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

Kṣatradharman — one of the sons of Dhṛṣṭadyumna. He was killed by Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

Kṣatrañjaya — one of the sons of Dhṛṣṭadyumna. He was killed by Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

Kṣatravarman — one of the sons of Dhṛṣṭadyumna. He was killed by Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

kṣatriya — third of the four orders of the varṇāśrama system. A warrior who is inclined to fight and lead others. The administrative or protective occupation according to the system of four social and spiritual orders.

 kṣatriya — A members of the second of the four occupational classes in the varnashrama social system. The kṣatriyas are the political and military leaders of society. They are expected to be heroic, charitable, selflessly dedicated to the welfare of all citizens, respectful of the spiritual authority of the brāhmaṇas, and ready to use force to stop wrongdoing.

Kṣattā — a name of Vidura.

kṣepaṇa — subordinate ecstatic symptoms, including dancing and bodily contortions; a division of anubhāva.

kṣetra — Literally, “field.” A holy district, especially that of Jagannātha Puri.

kṣetra — field of activities, the body of the conditioned soul.

kṣetra-sannyāsa — vow to leave household life and live in a place of pilgrimage devoted to Lord Viṣṇu.

kṣetrajña — one who is conscious of the body. Both the soul and the Supersoul are kṣetrajña, for the individual soul is conscious of his own particular body and the Supersoul is conscious of the bodies of all living beings.

kṣīra — Sweetened condensed milk.

Kṣīracorā — Gopīnātha Deity who stole condensed milk for Mādhavendra Purī.

Kṣīrodaka-śāyī Viṣṇu — The third of the three Puruṣas, incarnations of the Supreme Lord for the creation of the material universe. Kṣīrodaka-śāyī Viṣṇu resides on the island of Śvetadvīpa in the Milk Ocean and expands into the heart of every materially embodied being as the Supersoul.

Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu — the Viṣṇu expansion of the Supreme Lord who enters within each atom and between each atom of the universe and enters the heart of every living entity. He is also called the Supersoul.

kṣudhā-tṛṣṇā — hunger and thirst.

ku-viṣaya — sense gratificatory activities performed under sinful conditions. An auspicious grass used in Vedic rituals and sacrifices.

Kubjā — A hunchback woman of Mathurā employed as a seller of fragrant ointments. Attracted to Kṛṣṇa when He entered Mathurā, she happily agreed to supply Him ointment without payment and applied it to His body. As a reward Kṛṣṇa transformed her into a beautiful young lady. Kṛṣṇa later visited her home along with Uddhava.

kulācala — the place where there is no disturbance.

Kulaśekhara — a great devotee-king and the author of Mukunda-mālā stotra, prayers to Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Kumāras — The first four sons of Brahma. Brahma requested them to beget children, but they refused, preferring to remain forever celibate in the bodies of five-year-olds.

Kumāras — four learned ascetic sons of Lord Brahmā appearing eternally as children, who became great devotees of the Lord and great authorities on devotional service..

kumbha — pitcher.

Kumbha-melā — a fair held every twelve years at Prayāga for spiritual upliftment; attended by people from all over India.

kumbhaka-yoga — complete stoppage of the air currents within the body as part of the eightfold mystic process.

Kumbhakarṇa — One of Rāvaṇa’s brothers, a mighty demon, his appetite insatiable, who slept six months of the year. When Rāvaṇa needed help to meet the attack of Lord Rāmacandra’s army, Kumbhakarṇa was with great difficulty awakened, but he was sent to his death by Lord Rāma’s arrows.

kumera — a variety of sweet potato with a rich, orange colour, popular in New Zealand.

kumudaNymphaea esculenta, a species of night-blooming lotus with white flowers.

kuṇḍa — A lake or pond; generally refers to one of the sacred ponds in Vṛndavana.

kuṇḍa — small lake or pond.

 kundaJasminium pubescens, a species of jasmine

Kuṇḍadhāra — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

Kuṇḍaja — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

Kuṇḍalī — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

Kuṇḍina — (-pura) The capital of the kingdom of Vidarbha, ruled in the time of Kṛṣṇa by Bhīṣmaka, the father of Śrī Rukmiṇī.

Kuṇḍodara — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

kuñja — A grove.

kuṅkuma — A red cosmetic powder.

kuṅkuma — a sweetly-flavored reddish cosmetic powder which is thrown on the bodies of worshipable persons, also used by married women to decorate their foreheads.

Kuntī — (Pṛtha) One of King Pāṇḍu’s two wives. By union with various demigods, she became the mother of Karṇa, Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma, and Arjuna.

Kuntī — the mother of the Pāṇḍavas and Lord Kṛṣṇa's aunt in the Mahābhārata. She was the daughter of Śūrasena and the sister of Vasudeva. She was adopted by King Kuntībhoja and later married King Pāṇḍu. Her other name is Pṛthā.

Kuntibhoja — a king of the Yadu dynasty, and the foster father of Kuntī. He took the side of the Pāṇḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war.

kurabaka — The red amaranth flower.

kurara — a type of osprey (female kurarī).

kurārī — A female sea osprey.

Kūrma Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas. It describes the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa's tortoise incarnation.

Kūrma — Lord Viṣṇu’s form as a huge tortoise, one of the daśa-avatāras, the ten most famous incarnations of the Lord. The tortoise allowed the demigods and demons to use His back as a pivot for churning nectar from the Milk Ocean.

Kūrma — the Supreme Lord’s incarnation as a tortoise.

kurta — A tunic-like men’s shirt, commonly worn in India.

kurta — Indian shirts pullover.

Kuru — The founder of the dynasty in which the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas appeared.

Kuru — the founder of the dynasty in which the Pāṇḍavas, as well as their archrivals, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, took birth.

Kurukṣetra — “The holy field of the Kurus,” where in ancient times the members of that dynasty performed sacrifices. Lord Kṛṣṇa spoke the Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna just prior to beginning the battle fought there that decided the fate of the dynasty and ushered in the beginning of the Kali-yuga.

Kurukṣetra — a holy place due to the penances of King Kuru. It was here that the great Mahābhārata war was fought; situated about ninety miles north of New Delhi where Lord Kṛṣṇa spoke the Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna, five thousand years ago. It is a place of pilgrimage.

Kurus — all of the descendants of King Kuru, but specifically the 100 sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. The Pāṇḍavas were also descendants of King Kuru, but Dhṛtarāṣṭra wished to exclude them from the family tradition; enemies of the Pāṇḍavas.

 Kurus — See Kauravas.

kuśa — A sacred grass, also called darbha, essential for all Vedic sacrifices.

kutārkikas — false logicians.

kuṭi-nāṭi — duplicity or fault-finding.

kuṭīcaka — the first stage of the sannyāsa order. The kuṭīcaka lives in a hut nearby his village, and his family brings him food.

kuṭira — A hermitage-like residence. See bhajana-kuṭira.

kuṭṭamita — happy within the heart, but externally angry and offended.

kuṭumbinī — intelligence.

Kuvalayāpīḍa — An elephant deployed by King Kaṁsa to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma when They came to Mathurā. Kṛṣṇa killed the elephant and later used one of its tusks to kill Kaṁsa’s soldiers.

Kuvera — The demigod who looks after the vast treasures of heaven.

Kuvera — one of the important demigods in heaven, and the treasurer of wealth. He benedicted the Pāṇḍavas during their exile in the forest; father of Nalakūvara and Maṇigrīva.




laddu — A traditional Indian sweetball, made with chickpea flour, butter, and sweetener.

laghima-siddhi — mystic ability to make one's body very light

Laghu-Bhāgavatāmṛta — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s systematic presentation of the philosophy of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, a presentation based on Bṛhad-Bhāgavatamṛta. The basic thesis of Laghu-Bhāgavatamṛtais that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta — a book by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī describing Kṛṣṇa, His incarnations and His devotees.

lakh — One hundred thousand.

lakh — one hundred thousand, written as 1,00,000.

Laksman Sen — King of Bengal in the 12th century. His grandfather, Vijaya Sen, founded the city of Navadvīpa in 1063 on the eastern bank of the Ganges. Laksman Sen was crowned king in 1178, and he made Navadvīpa his capital. The ruins of his kingdom can still be found in the villages of Bamanpukur and Māyāpura. He was a great patron of learning and sponsored the famous Jayadeva Gosvāmī, author of Gītā-govinda.

Lakṣmaṇa — The eldest of Lord Rāmacandra’s three younger brothers. He faithfully followed Rāma and Sītā into forest exile and stood by Rāma’s side throughout the struggle to defeat Rāvaṇa.

Lakṣmaṇa — a very brave son of Duryodhana. He was killed by Abhimanyu during the battle of Kurukṣetra.

Lakṣmaṇa — a younger brother of Lord Rāmacandra's. An incarnation of Saṅkarṣaṇa, He accompanied Rāma and Sītā in Their exile.

Lakṣmī — (-devī) The eternal consort of the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu. She presides over the infinite opulences of Vaikuṇṭha, and her partial expansion dispenses opulences in the material world; money.

Lakṣmī — the goddess of fortune and the eternal consort of the Supreme Lord as Lord Nārayaṇa, who resides in the unlimited spiritual realm of Vaikuṇtha.

Lakṣmī-kāṇṭa — Lord Viṣṇu, the beloved husband of the goddess Lakṣmī.

Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa — Expansions of Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa worshiped in the mood of awe and reverence, as in the Vaikuṇṭha planets.

Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa — the transcendental couple of Lord Kṛṣṇa in His four-armed form and the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī.

Lakṣmī-vijayotsava festival — the pastime of Lakṣmī’s victory during the Ratha-yātrā festival.

Lalitā — One of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s intimate friends, who are Her principal expansions, the original potencies behind all spiritual and material creations. Being a little older than Rādhārāṇī, Lalitā often advises Her on proper behavior.

Laṅkā — The demon Rāvaṇa’s island kingdom (or, also, his capital), often identified with the modern country Sri Lanka. Rāvaṇa’s kingdom was demolished by Lord Rāmacandra’s army.

Laṅkā — the golden city of Rāvaṇa, situated some eight hundred miles south of India, in Ceylon.

laossee: Galangal

lāphrā-vyañjana — combination of green vegetables, often mixed with rice.

lassi — a sweet or salty yogurt drink.

Laulyam — Greed; usually refers to intense desire to see Kṛṣṇa.

 League of Devotees — A short-lived precursor to ISKCON established by Śrīla Prabhupāda in India prior to coming to America.

lemongrass — Used as a culinary herb is South East Asian cooking, especially Thai and Indonesian cuisine. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is a typical grass but has a bulbous base and a strong taste and smell of lemon. It is available in powdered form (called Sereh powder), in flakes, or sometimes fresh, from Asian grocery stores. Since very little is used at any one time, the dried flakes or powder are more practical to have on one's spice shelf.

lemons and limes — lemons (Citrus limon) and limes (Citrus aurantifolia)  play a significant role in cuisines of the world. Lemon juice is very much favoured as a souring agent in European and Eastern cuisines alike; the essential 'oil of lemon', which is concentrated in the rind or zest, is particularly well-liked in European cakes and sauces. Limes are especially used in tropical countries, where they are more easily available. Lime juice when used in cooking, gives a markedly different flavour to lemon juice, lime juice being more sour and slightly more bitter than lemon juice. These juices also act as a preservative in cooked foods. Lemons and limes are wonderful sliced as garnishes, and, of course, are excellent thirst-quenchers. In serving an Indian-style meal, a wedge of lemon or lime is essential as an accompaniment.

lentils — used extensively in cuisines of the world. Brown lentils (from the plant Lens culinaris) and red lentils (called masoor dal in India) are probably the most well-known. Toovar dal (arhar dal) is another lentil well-loved in Indian cooking. Lentils contain almost 25% protein, 54% carbohydrate and vitamin A, some of the B vitamins, and good amounts of minerals, including iron and calcium. Brown and red lentils are available at almost any supermarket or grocery store. Toovar dal is available at Indian grocery stores. (Note that due to their very high protein content, red lentils are not consumed by strict followers of the Vedic culture.)

liberation — freedom from the material concept of life; being situated in one's constitutional position as an eternal servant of God.

līlā — “Pastimes,” the eternal activities of the Supreme Lord in loving reciprocation with His devotees. Unlike the affairs of materially conditioned souls, the Lord’s līlās are not restricted by the laws of nature or impelled by the reactions of past deeds. Finite souls who enter those līlās also become completely free.

līlā — a transcendental “pastime” or activity performed by God or his devotee.

līlā-avatāras — Incarnations of the Supreme Lord who descend specifically to display pastimes in this world.

Līlā-avatāras — innumerable incarnations, like Matsya, Kurma, Rāma and Nṛsiṁha, who descend to display the spiritual pastimes of the Personality of Godhead in the material world.

Līlā-śakti — Kṛṣṇa’s internal potency, the energy that helps to enact His pastimes.

līlā-smaraṇa — “Remembrance of the Supreme Lord’s pastimes,” an elevated internal form of devotional service that can be rightly practiced only by those whose hearts are thoroughly pure.

lima beans — popular in European cuisine, lima beans (Phaseolus lunatas), are also known as butter beans, and are available large or small. They are tasty additions to soups, stews, and salads and are featured in this book in Lima Bean and Cheese Croquettes. They are available at supermarkets and grocery stores.

lime leaves — the fresh or dried leaves of the lime tree. They are used in South East Asian and especially, Indonesian cooking. The leaves are used in rice, stews, and vegetable dishes to impart a pleasant lime taste.

liṅga — the subtle body: mind, intelligence and false ego.

liṅgam — phallic symbol which is used in the worship of Lord Śiva.

lobha — greed.

Locana dāsa Ṭhākura — a great Kṛṣṇa conscious spiritual master.

Loi Bazaar — A shopping district in Vṛndāvana specializing in devotional items.

loka — planet.

loka-pāla — a generic term for the deity presiding over one of the directions: Indra for the east, Agni for the southeast. Yama for the south, Sūrya for the southwest, Varuṇa for the west, Vāyu for the northwest, Kuvera for the north, and Candra for the northeast.

loka-pratāraka — a pretender.

Lokāloka — The immense mountain range that separates the part of the universe illumined by the sun (loka) from the outer regions of darkness (aloka).

Lokāyatikas — a class of philosophers, akin to the Buddhists, who existed when Lord Kṛṣṇa spoke Bhagavad-gītā and who accept that life is a product of a mature combination of material elements.

Lomaśa — a sage who guided the Pāṇḍavas during their exile in the forest. He took them to many places of pilgrimage. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

lorry — truck

 lotus feet — With the lotus regarded as an emblem of beauty in the material world, the term “lotus” is accepted to describe the all-pure and all-attractive feet of the Supreme Lord or His pure devotee.




mad elephant offense — offense against the lotus feet of a Vaiṣṇava.

mada — madness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva; also, intoxication.

Madana — Cupid, the demigod who incites lusty desires in the living beings.

mādana — a category of highly advanced ecstasy in which the lovers meet together and there is kissing and many other symptoms.

Madana-gopāla — Kṛṣṇa, the transcendental Cupid appearing as a young cowherd.

Madana-mohana — the name of Kṛṣṇa which means “He who charms Cupid.”

Madana-mohana-mohinī — Rādhārāṇī, the enchanter of the enchanter of Cupid.

Mādhāisee: Jagāi and Mādhāi

Mādhava — Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu. Also, a famous Deity of Viṣṇu worshiped at Daśaśvamedha-ghāṭa, Prayāga.

Mādhava — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who appeared in the Madhu dynasty.” It is also a name for the Yadu dynasty; also a name of Kṛṣṇa comparing Him to the sweetness of springtime or the sweetness of honey.

Mādhavendra Purī — The spiritual master of Īśvara Purī.

mādhavīHiptage madhablota, a shrubby vine, herald of spring and lover of the mango tree.

Madhu — See Kaiṭabha.

Madhudvit — Lord Viṣṇu, enemy of the demon Madhu.

mādhukarī — a saintly mendicant who takes a little food from each householder’s place like a bee gathering honey; a system of begging adopted by a mendicant.

Madhumaṅgala — A young brāhmaṇa boy who was among Kṛṣṇa’s closest playmates. He was the son of Sāndīpani Muni (Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma’s teacher in Avanti) and the grandson of Paurṇamāsī. When Paurṇamāsī moved to Vraja, Madhumaṇgala came with her.

Madhupati — name of Kṛṣṇa in Dvārakā.

Madhupurī — See Mathurā.

madhura-rasasee:  Mādhurya-rasa. below.

madhuram — Sweet.

madhurya — lit., “sweetness.” Refers to the sweet conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs.

mādhurya-bhaktas — devotees engaged only in conjugal love.

mādhurya-līlā — The sweet conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs.

Mādhurya-līlā — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes of conjugal love with His eternal associates.

mādhurya-rasa — Devotional service to Kṛṣṇa in conjugal love.

mādhurya-rasa — the spiritual relationship in conjugal love which the Supreme Lord and His devotee reciprocate as lovers.

mādhurya-ratisee: Mādhurya-rasa. above.

Madhusūdana — a name of Kṛṣṇa, “killer of the Madhu demon.”

Madhuvana — A sacred forest in Vṛndāvana.

Madhvācārya — The founding ācārya of one of the four Vaiṣṇava sampradāyas in Kali-yuga. He appeared in the thirteenth century as a Karnataka brāhmaṇa, taught a strictly theistic version of Vedānta philosophy, vigorously opposed the Advaita-vāda of Śaṅkarācārya, and established the worship of Śrī Kṛṣṇa at Udupi.

Madhvācārya — a great thirteenth-century Vaiṣṇava spiritual master, who preached the theistic philosophy of pure dualism. The founder of the dvaita school of Vedānta philosophy. He wrote a number of works which refuted the impersonal philosophy of Śaṅkarācārya. He appeared in the 13th century in Udipī, in South India. He took sannyāsa at the age of twelve, traveled all over India and had the personal darśana of Śrīla Vyāsadeva in the Himalayan abode of Badarikāśrama and presented his commentary on Bhagavad-gītā before that venerable sage. He also received a śālagrama-śīla called Aṣṭamūrti from Vyāsa. He was very powerful both physically and intellectualy, and was considered to be an incarnation of Vāyu, the wind god.

madhya-līlā — The pastimes Lord Caitanya performed during the middle part of His manifest presence, while He was traveling throughout India; the portion of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta recounting those pastimes.

Madhya-līlā — the pastimes Lord Caitanya performed during the middle part of His manifest presence, while He was traveling throughout India; the portion of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta recounting those pastimes.

madhyama-adhikārī — A devotee whose advancement in spiritual life is midway between the neophyte (kaniṣṭha) and advanced (uttama) levels.

madhyama-adhikārī — devotee who worships the Lord with firm faith, makes friends with His devotees, preaches to the innocent, and avoids atheists; Madhyama-bhāgavata

Madirā — a wife of Vasudeva.

madirekṣaṇā — refers to one whose eyes are so attractive that one who observes them becomes maddened by her. In other words, madirekṣaṇā means a very beautiful young girl. According to Jīva Gosvāmī, madirekṣaṇā means the personified deity of bhakti. If one is attracted by the bhakti cult, he becomes engaged in the service of the Lord and the spiritual master, and thus his life becomes successful. Vaidarbhī, the woman, became a follower of her husband. As she left her comfortable home for the service of her husband, a serious student of spiritual understanding must give up everything for the service of the spiritual master. As stated by Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādaḥ: ** if one wants actual success in life, he must strictly follow the instructions of the spiritual master. By following such instructions, one is sure to make rapid progress in spiritual life. This statement by Viśvanātha Cakravartī is in pursuance of the following injunction from the Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad  [ŚU 6.23]:

yasya deve parā bhaktir
yathā deve tathā gurau
tasyaite kathitā hy arthāḥ
prakāśante mahātmanaḥ

“Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed.” In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad it is said, ācāryavān puruṣo veda: “One who approaches a bona fide spiritual master can understand everything about spiritual realization.”

Mādrī — the co-wife (with Kuntī) of King Pāṇḍu. She conceived Nakula and Sahadeva from the Aśvinī Kumāra demigods. She entered the fire with her husband.

Magadha — a province of ancient India; also the capital city of King Jarāsandha.

Māgha — The lunar month that usually begins in January and ends in February.

Māgha-melā — a yearly fair held during the month of Māgha at Prayāga for spiritual upliftment.

mahā — A Sanskrit prefix meaning “great” or “large.”

mahā-bhāgavata — A devotee in the highest stage of devotional life.

mahā-bhāgavata — a pure devotee of the Supreme Lord in the highest stage of devotional life. See also: uttama-adhikārī.

mahā-bhāva — The ultimate limit of devotional ecstasy, found only in Śrī Rādhā and some of Her intimate servants. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who was Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the mood of Śrī Rādhā, also displayed such ecstasy.

Mahā-bhāva — the highest stage of love of God.

mahā-bhūta — Any one of the gross elements of material creation (earth, water, fire, air, or ether).

Mahā-dvādaśī — the day after Ekādaśī, celebrated instead of Ekādaśi because of astronomical overlapping. Lord Kṛṣṇa calls it Ekādaśī if a fast is observed on that day.

Mahā-lakṣmī — See Lakṣmī.

Mahā-lakṣmīsee: Lakṣmī

mahā-mahā-prasādam — the remnants of food left by a pure Vaiṣṇava.

mahā-mantra — The great chant for deliverance: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.

Mahā-mantra — the great chanting for deliverance: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare; is the great mantra composed of the principal names of Godhead in their vocative forms. This maha-mantra is found in the Purāṇas and Upaniṣads and is specifically recommended for chanting in this age of Kali as the only means of God realization. Lord Caitanya personally designated it as the mahā-mantra and practically demonstrated the effects of the chanting.

Mahā-māya — See Māya.

Mahā-māyā — the material nature; the external potency of the Supreme Lord, which bewilders the conditioned living entities. She is personified as Durgā-devī; the illusory, material energy of the Supreme Lord.

mahā-paṇḍita — a very learned person.

mahā-prasāda — Food directly from the plate that has been offered to the Supreme Lord. Such food from Lord Jagannātha at Purī is especially known as mahā-prasāda, but Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī uses the term to refer to Kṛṣṇa’s prasāda in general.

mahā-prasādam — sanctified food that consists of remnants from the plate offered directly to Kṛṣṇa in His Deity form.

Mahā-purāṇas — The eighteen major Purāṇas, six for people in each of the three modes of material nature.

mahā-pūrṇa — the highest level of perfection.

Mahā-puruṣa — the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme enjoyer.

mahā-ratha — a powerful warrior who can single-handedly fight against ten thousand others.

mahā-snāna — a vast bath with ghee and water used to bathe the Deity.

Mahā-vadānyāvatāra — Lord Caitanya, the most magnanimous incarnation.

mahā-vākya — A principal Vedic mantra or verse.

mahā-vākya — transcendental sound vibration.

Mahā-varāha — See Varāha.

Mahā-Viṣṇu — The first of the three Puruṣas, incarnations of the Supreme Lord for the creation of the material universe. He lies down in the Causal Ocean on the bed of Ananta Śeṣa and initiates the creation by glancing at His personified material energy, Māya.

Maha-Viṣṇu — the expansion of the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu reclining on Adi-Sesa, from whom all material universes emanate.

Mahābhārata — The epic history of “greater India” composed by Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. One chapter is theBhagavad-gītā.

Mahābhārata — an ancient, Sanskrit, epic history of Bhārata, or India composed by Krṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsadeva, the literary incarnation of Godhead, in 100,000 verses. The essence of all Vedic philosophy, the Bhagavad-gītā, is a part of this great work. Maha-bhārata is a history of the earth from its creation to the great Kurukṣetra war fought between the Kuru and Pāṇdava factions of the Kaurava dynasty, which took place about five thousand years ago. The battle was waged to determine who would be the emperor of the world: the saintly Yudhiṣthira, a Vaiṣṇava king, or the evil-minded Duryodhana, the son of Dhrtarastra.

Mahābhārata-tatparya-nīrṇaya — Madhvācārya’s commentary on the Mahābhārata.

mahābhuta(mahā — great + bhuta — element) the five great material elements: earth, water, fire, air and ether.

Mahādeva — “The great god,” Śiva.

Mahādeva — Lord Śiva

Mahājana — one of the twelve great self-realized souls, authorized agents of the Lord whose duty is to preach the cult of devotional service to the people in general; one who understands the Absolute Truth and throughout his life behaves likes a pure devotee.

mahājanas — “Great persons,” refers to the twelve authorized agents of the Lord whose duty it is to preach the path of devotional service to the people in general.

Mahākāśa — (lit., the greatest sky of all) the space occupied by Goloka Vṛndāvana.

mahal — palace or house.

Mahāprabhu — Supreme master of all masters; refers to Lord Caitanya.

Mahāprabhu — supreme master of all masters; Lord Caitanya.

Mahapuri — one of the pilgrimage citties in India where residence brings salvation. The seven maha-puris are Mathura, Ayodhya, Hardwar, Varanasi, Kanchi, Ujjain, and Dwarka.

Mahāpuruṣa — “The Supreme Person” or “supreme enjoyer,” Lord Viṣṇu. More specifically, an expansion of Mahā-Viṣṇu who resides on the planet of Brahmā.

Mahar — (-loka) The first of the planets where sages reside above the heaven of Indra. The residents of Maharloka are sages who have not renounced family life.

Mahārāja — “Great ruler,” a term of address to kings and renounced holy men.

Mahārāja — king, ruler, sannyasi (renounced order of life)

Mahārāṇī — wife of the king or the ruler in her own right.

Mahāraurava — a hell wherein animal killers are sent.

maharloka — a heavenly planet.

mahat-tattva — The first transformation of primordial nature. It contains all the other elements in their subtle, unmanifest forms.

mahat-tattva — the original, undifferentiated form of the total material energy, from which the material world is manifested.

mahātmā — A “great soul,” a saint who has broad intelligence by dint of his full Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

mahātmā — a “great soul” an exalted devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa, free from material contamination. one who factually understands that Kṛṣṇa is everything and who therefore surrenders unto Him.

Mahāvana — One of the twelve main forests of Vraja. See Gokula.

Mahāyoga — See Yogamāya.

Mahendra — See Indra.

Mahendra — Lord Indra, the King of heaven.

Maheśa — “The great lord,” Śiva.

Maheśvara — the supreme proprietor. See: Śiva

Mahiṣa — buffalo demon who was killed by Durgā.

Mahodara — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

maidan — open square or park.

Maināka — this mountain was the son of Himavan during the Satya-yuga, when mountains had wings. Its wings were clipped, and it was placed in the ocean by Indra.

Maitreya Muni — the great sage who spoke Śrīmād-Bhagāvātām to Vidura, who gave advice to the Pāṇḍavas during their exile in the forest. He cursed Duryodhana that Bhīma would fulfill his vow.

Maitreya — A sage who was a friend of Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. Maitreya heard Kṛṣṇa’s discussions with Uddhava just before Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance and passed on what he learned to Vidura. The conversations of Maitreya and Vidura make up the Third and Fourth Cantos of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

makara — A celestial species of crocodile, considered auspicious. Also, the sign of the zodiac corresponding to the Greek Capricorn.

Makara-dhvaja — “The sex-god is called Makara-dhvaja.” SB 3.28.32. See also: Cupid

mālā — chanting with beads.

mala — string of 108 beads made from Tulsasi wood used for chanting or japa.

mālatīJasminium grandiflorum, a twining shrub with fragrant white flowers.

malayadhvaja — a nice devotee who is like sandalwood.

malina-aṅgatā — the ecstatic symptom of uncleanliness.

mallikā — a sweet-scented flower of Vṛndāvana.

Mālyavān — a great demon.

mamatā — an intimate attachment between the servitor and the served in devotional service.

mānā — standard of measurement for rice and grain.

māna — when the lover feels novel sweetness by exchanging hearty loving words but wishes to hide his feelings by crooked means.

Mānasa-gaṅgā — a sacred river that flows in Vṛndāvana along part of the base of Govardhana Hill.

Mānasa-sarovara — A sacred lake on Kailāsa Mountain. Indra tried to hide within the lake from his sins, and Ambarīṣa meditated by its shore. The lotuses growing in this lake are prized even by the residents of heaven.

Mānasarovara — a lake north of India, near Mount Kailāsa.

Mānasī-gaṅga — The most sacred of lakes, located at the midpoint of Govardhana Hill. Kṛṣṇa created it from His mind and filled it with the waters of the Gaṅgā and all other holy rivers and lakes to dissuade His father from leaving Vraja to go on pilgrimage.

maṇḍala — A district, a subdivision of a province.

mandapam (mandapa) — halls of the temple, often with many pillars. They are one or more entrance porches or halls that lead to the vimana or inner sanctum.

mandara — The flower of the coral tree, one of the five special trees of heaven.

Mandarācala — the mountain used by the demigods and demons to churn the ocean of milk and thus extract nectar.

mandir — temple

mandira — Temple.

maṅgala-ārati — The first Deity worship of the day, performed approximately an hour and a half before sunrise.

maṅgala-arati — the daily predawn worship ceremony honoring the Deity of the Supreme Lord.

maṅgalācaraṇa — Verses an author composes as an invocation with which to begin a book. The three aims of such an invocation are to offer respects to one’s worshipable Deity, to offer blessings to the readers, and to set forth the topic of the book.

mango powder(see Amchoor)

Maṇikarṇikā — One of the principal bathing ghāṭas on the Gaṅga in Kāśī.

maṇimā — an address used for respectable persons in Orissa.

Maṇimān — a Yakṣa who was killed by Bhīmasena. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

manīṣā — intelligence.

mañjarī — An intimate gopī maidservant of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

mañjarī — the small, purplish flowers of the tulasī plant. Mañjarīs, along with tulasī leaves, are offered only to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They must be fresh.

Manjughoṣā — a society lady of the heavenly planets.

manomaya — (consciousness) absorbed in mental activity.

mantra — A short expression in sacred language chanted to purify the mind and fulfill various aspirations.

mantra — (man — mind + tra — deliverance) a pure sound vibration when repeated over and over delivers the mind from its material inclinations and illusion. A transcendental sound or Vedic hymn, a prayer or chant.

mantra-japa — Chanting of a mantra quietly to oneself.

Manu — Svayambhuva Manu, a demigod son of Brahmā who is the original father and lawgiver of the human race; also, a generic name for any of the fourteen universal rulers also known as Manvantara-avataras, who appear in each day of Lord Brahmā. Their names are 1) Svayambhuva; 2) Svārociṣa; 3) Uttama; 4) Tāmasa; 5) Raivata; 6) Cākṣusa; 7) Vaivasvata; 8) Savarṇi; 9) Dakṣa-sāvarṇi; 10) Brahma-sāvarṇi; 11) Dharma-sāvarṇi; 12) Rudra-sāvarṇi; 13) Deva-sāvarni; 14) Indra-sāvarṇi.

Manu-saṁhitā — the scriptural lawbook for mankind, written by Manu, the administrative demigod, and father of mankind.

Manus — The original progenitors and lawgivers of the human race. In each day of Brahmā there are fourteen Manus. The current Manu is Vaivasvata, son of the sun-god Vivasvān.

manuṣya-gaṇa — mankind.

manvantara — The period of a Manu’s reign, lasting 306, 720,000 years.

manvantara — the duration of each Manu’ s reign

manvantara-avatāra — Special incarnations of the Supreme Lord who appear in each manvantara to assist Indra and the other demigods in subduing demons and maintaining the principles of religion.

Manvantara-avatāras — the incarnations of the Supreme Lord who appear during the reign of each Manu (306,720,000 years); used as a standard division of history.

marakaṭa — Emerald.

marakata-maṇi — an emerald.

Maratha — ruling group from Maharashtra in the 16th and 17th centuries.

mārga — Path.

mārga — road.

Marīci — one of the great sages born directly from Lord Brahmā.

Māriṣā — the society girl of the heavenly planets sent by Indra to seduce the sage Kaṇḍu.

marjoram — one of the most important of all kitchen herbs, it is used in virtually every type of European cuisine, although not very much used in Eastern cooking. Marjoram (Majorana hortensis) has a delicate, pleasant, sweet flavour with a slightly bitter, aromatic undertone. It is generally used in its dried form, for soup, stews, vegetable dishes, and sauces. As a fresh herb, it is delicious in salads. Dried marjoram is available at any supermarket or grocer. Fresh marjoram is occasionally available at produce markets and at good greengrocers.

Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa — the Purāṇa of Mārkaṇḍeya Ṛṣi.

Mārkaṇḍeya Ṛṣi — an ancient sage who narrated the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa, which, describes the nature of Krṣṇa. He beheld the Lord lying down on a Banyan leaf during the period of universal devastation

markaṭa-vairāgya — false renunciation; literally, the renunciation of a monkey.

martya — a description of Kṛṣṇa indicating that because of His affection for His devotees He appears like an ordinary human being.

Martya-loka — the “world of death,” the earth.

Martyaloka — “The world of mortals,” the lower parts of the universe, below Svarga. Demigods are also mortal, but they are called “immortals” because their span of life is much longer than that of humans.

Marudloka — the planet of the Maruts, associates of King Indra.

Maruts — The forty-nine expansions of the wind-god, who are friends of Indra.

Maruts — the demigod associates of King Indra, the gods of the air. They number forty-nine and are sons of Diti.

maryādā-laṅghana — a violation of the regulative principles.

masala — a combination of herbs, spices, or seasonings used in Indian cuisine. Some masalas, like Bengali panch puran, contain whole spices. Others, like chat masala, garam masala, sambar masala, or rasam powder, contain numerous powdered spices combined together. For details on masalas see individual entries.

masjīd — a mosque.

Mātā Śacī — the mother of Lord Śri Caitanya Mahāprabhu and the wife of Nilāmbara Cakravartī.

mata — mother.

mātājī — Mother.

Mātali — the charioteer of Indra. He took Arjuna to the heavenly planets. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

maṭh — A religious institution.

Maṭha — a temple of the Lord with an attached residence or āśrama for brahmacārīs (celibate students) and sannyāsīs (renunciants) to live; monastery.

Mathurā — (-dhāma, -maṇḍala, -purī) The eternal abode in which Kṛṣṇa manifests Himself as the Lord of the Yādavas. During His descent to earth, Kṛṣṇa reclaimed Mathurā for the Yādavas by killing Kaṁsa and installing Ugrasena on the throne. Kṛṣṇa resided in Mathurā for thirty-three years before relocating the Yādavas to Dvārakā.

Mathurā — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s abode, and birth place, surrounding Vṛndāvana. At the end of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s manifest līlā, Vajra, His grandson, was put in charge of this sacred city. Lord Krsṇa displayed His pastimes after leaving Vṛndāvana. It is also the name of the district where Vraja (Vṛndāvana) is located.

Mathurānātha — Kṛṣṇa, “the Lord of Mathurā.”

mati — attention, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

matiar — peas.

mātsarya — envy.

Matsya — Lord Viṣṇu’s form as a huge fish, one of the daśa-avatāras, the ten most famous incarnations of the Lord. Matsya appeared at the end of the Cākṣuṣa manvantara to save the next Manu, the seven sages, and the Vedas from the universal deluge.

Matsya — the fish incarnation of the Supreme Lord.

maugdhya — assuming the position of not knowing things although everything is known.

mauna — Silence.

Mauṣala-līlā — the pastimes of the annihilation of the Yadu dynasty and Lord Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance.

Maya Dānava — the architect of the demons.

māyā — The Supreme Lord’s inferior, material energy. She creates and controls the material world, keeping its inhabitants in countless varieties of illusion.

māyā — illusion; an energy of Krṣna's which deludes the living entity into forgetfulness of the Supreme Lord. That which is not, unreality, deception, forgetfulness, material illusion. Under illusion a man thinks he can be happy in this temporary material world. The nature of the material world is that the more a man tries to exploit the material situation, the more he is bound by māyā's complexities.

 Maya — The chief architect of the demons. When Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna saved him from the fire in the Khāṇḍava forest, he became their friend and built a wonderful assembly hall for the Pāṇḍavas at Indraprastha.

māyā-śaktisee: māyā.

māyā-sukha — material happiness, which is illusory and temporary.

māyā-vaśa — subjected to the influence of the illusory energy.

Māyādevī — See Māyā.

Māyādhīśa — the Lord of all energy.

Māyāpur — A town in West Bengal, India, where Lord Caitanya appeared.

Māyāvāda — The impersonal philosophy of “oneness,” which holds that the Absolute Truth, one without a second, is formless and changeless, and that whatever has name and form is an illusion falsely imposed on that Truth. The most influential proponent of Māyāvāda in the current age was Śankarācārya.

māyāvāda — the impersonal philosophy first propounded by Śaṅkarācārya, which proposes the unqualified oneness of God and the living entities (who are both conceived of as being ultimately formless) and the nonreality of manifest nature; the philosophy that everything is one and that the Absolute Truth is not a person.

mayāvādī — one who propounds the philosophy of Śaṅkarācārya, which basically holds that God is featureless and impersonal, that devotion to a personal Godhead is false, the material creation of the Lord is also false, and the ultimate goal of life is to become existentially one with the all-pervading, impersonal Absolute.

Māyāvādīs — (Advaita-vādīs) Proponents of the impersonal philosophy of “oneness,” which holds that the Absolute Truth, one without a second, is formless and changeless, and that whatever has name and form is an illusion falsely imposed on that Truth. The most influential Māyāvādī in the current age was Śankarācārya.

māyayāpahṛta-jñānā — A person whose knowledge is stolen by illusion.

mela — fair, festival.

Menakā — the famous society girl of the heavenly planets who seduced the sage Viśvāmitra.

Meru — The great mountain that is the axis of the universe. It is also called Sumeru and Mahāmeru. It extends upward through the center of the earthly planetary system, and on its upper peak lies Satyaloka, the abode of Lord Brahmā.

Meru — a mountain, the golden peak of Himavan, seat of Lord Śiva, abode of the demigods. Also called Maha-meru.

mezze — Middle Eastern hors d'oeuvres or appetizers. Mezze is essentially a Lebanese creation but has spread throughout the Middle East. Delicious vegetarian mezze included in this book are fresh, round Middle Eastern Breads (Pita) and dips such as Chickpea and Sesame Dip (Hummus), Lebanese Eggplant Dip (Babagannonj, and Syrian Yogurt Cheese Labreh). Lebanese Bulgur Wheat Salad (Tabbouleh) invariably appears on the mezze banquet table, as do varieties of Stuffed Vine Leaves (Dolmades), along with simple items such as slices of cucumber, olives, fresh raw or blanched vegetables, nuts, whole cooked chickpeas, and lemon wedges.

 Milk Ocean — See Ocean of Milk.

Mīmāṁsā — “Systematic study” of the meaning of the Vedas. The earlier Mīmāṁsā (Pūrva-Mīmāṁsā), which explains the ritual meaning of the Vedas, was taught by Vyāsadeva’s disciple Jaimini. The second Mīmāṁsā (Uttara-mīmāṁsā), which explains the Absolute Truth, was taught in the Vedānta-sutra by Vyāsa Himself.

Mīmāṁsāsee: Jaimini..

mīmāṁsakas — atheistic philosophers who say that even if God exists He is obliged to reward us the fruits of our work. From karma-mimāṁsā philosophy of Jaimini..

mint — a widely used culinary herb. There are many species of mint, and classification is difficult because the species easily cross and hybridze. Although spearmint (Mentha spicata) and peppermint (Mentha piperata) are the two most common mints, the round-leaved varieties of apple mint, Bowles mint, and pineapple mint (Mentha rotundifolia) are among the best mints for cooking. Mint may be generally described as having a fresh, strong, sweet, and tangy flavour, with a cool after-taste. Mint is better used fresh rather than dried. In Indian cuisine, mint is commonly used in fresh chutneys. Fresh mint also goes with many fruits and is excellent in fruit salads and fruit drinks such as Lemon Mint and Whey Nectar.

Mirabai — poetess, author of popular devotional songs.

miśra — Mixed.

miśra-sattva — mundane goodness.

Mithilā — The capital of the kingdom of Videha, since ancient times a center of learning and brahminical culture.

Mithila — capital of the kingdom of Videha, ruled by King Janaka, fathet of Sita. Modern Janatput, Nepal.

Mitra — the demigod who controls death.

mleccha — A class of persons outside the social and spiritual divisions of Vedic culture, whose standards and practices are considered abominable.

Mleccha — someone lower than a śūdra.

mlecchas — uncivilized humans, outside the Vedic system of society, who are generally meat-eaters.

Moghul — the Muslim dynasty of Indian Emperors starting from Babur.

Moha — bewilderment, a vyabhicāri-bhāva; illusion.

moha — illusion.

mohana — highly advanced ecstasy in which the lovers are separated; divided into udghūrṇā and citra-jalpa.

Mohinī — (-mūrti) The avatāra of Lord Viṣṇu as the most beautiful woman. She appeared from the churning of the Ocean of Milk, deceived the demons, and delivered the nectar of immortality to the demigods.

Mohinī — the incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a most beautiful woman. She distributed the nectar produced from the churning of the ocean of milk. She was also pursued by Lord Śiva.

mokṣa — Liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

mokṣa — liberation from material bondage.

mokṣa-kāmī — one who desires liberation.

mokṣākāṅkṣīsee: Mokṣa-kāmī above

mokṣonmukhī — pious activities that enable the living entity to merge into the existence of the Supreme.

monolith — a monument, statue or temple carved out of a single stone.

monsoon — rainy season from June to October.

moṭṭāyita — awakening of lusty desires by the remembrance and words of the hero.

mozzarella cheese — this famous Italian cheese was traditionally made from buffalo's milk, but these days it is more frequently made from cows milk. It can be eaten fresh, but when hung for some time it becomes a little dry and is then specifically used for cooking. Mozzarella is a good melting cheese, making it a popular topping for pizzas. It can also be baked or batter-fried. It can be obtained at any good supermarket or grocery store.

mṛdaṅga — A two-headed clay drum, traditionally used in kīrtana.

mṛdaṅga — a two-headed clay drum used for kīrtana performances and congregational chanting.

Mṛgāri — A cruel hunter and torturer of animals who, by the influence of Nārada Muni, became a pure devotee.

mṛttikā — clay derived from wet earth.

Mṛtyu — death personified, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Mucukunda — A son of King Māndhātā whose valiant fighting for the demigods won him a boon by which his glance burned to ashes the barbarian Kālayavana, who had been chasing Kṛṣṇa.

Mūḍha — Fool, rascal.

mūḍha — a fool or rascal; asslike person.

mudrā — A symbolic hand gesture.

muhūrta — a period of forty-eight minutes.

mukta-puruṣa — a liberated soul.

mukti — (mokṣa) Liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

mukti — liberation of a conditioned soul from material consciousness and bondage.

Mukti-devī — the demigoddess who is the personification of liberation.

Mukti-pāda — the Supreme Lord under whose feet exist all kinds of liberation.

Mukunda — Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu, the “giver of liberation.”

Mukunda — the name of Kṛṣṇa meaning “the giver of liberation.”

Mukunda-datta — Madhukantha, famous singer of Vrajabhumi

mukut — a crown or tiara worn by the Deity.

Mūla-mantra — a short Sanskrit incantation uttered before one offers an item of worship to the Deity of Kṛṣṇa or His expansions.

mumukṣu — one who desires liberation from the material world.

mung beans sprouts — sprouted, whole green mung beans. Popular in Chinese cooking, the mung beans are allowed to sprout until quite long. However, from a nutritional point of view, mung beans are best used when the beans have just sprouted and the shoot is less than 1 cm long. These are crisp in texture and bursting with nutrition. Mung bean shoots are rich in vitamins B, C, and E. Their protein content (mung bean shoots are 37% protein) is highly digestible; they are pleasantly sweet, low calorie, and inexpensive.

mung beans — protein-rich, green-skinned, oval beans commonly used for sprouting. Also known as 'green gram', whole green mung beans are excellent for stews and soups, as well as Indian dry-bean dishes. It is available at Indian or Asian grocers, or specialty stores.

mung dal — the pale, yellow beans from the plant Phaseolus aureus. Whether used with or without the husks, split mung beans are a popular food item in Indian cuisine. Mung dal is easy to digest, is high in protein, and cooks to a creamy puree in a short time. It is used extensively in soups, stews, and sauces throughout India. Split mung beans are also used in Thai and Vietnamese cooking. It is available at Indian or Asian grocery stores.

muni — A thoughtful sage.

muni — a sage or self-realized soul.

muni-putra — the son of a sage.

Mura — A five-headed demon employed by Narakāsura to guard the fortress of his capital, Prāgjyotiṣa-pura. When Kṛṣṇa invaded, He killed Mura and then Naraka.

Murāri — Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the demon Mura.

Murāri — Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the demon Mura.

Muraripu (Muradviṣa) — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, the killer of the demon Mura

mūrti — A form, usually referring to a Deity.

Mūrti — form of the Lord or His devotee.

mustard seeds — of the many varieties of mustard, the three most prominent are the tiny round brownish-black seeds from the plant known as Brassica nigra, commonly known as black mustard; the purple-brown seed of Brassica juncea, commonly called brown mustard; and the yellow seeds from Brassica alba, known as white or yellow mustard. Black and brown mustard seeds are often confused with each other. Brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) are commonly used as a spice seed in Indian cuisine, where they are known as rai. In South Indian Cuisine they are fried in hot oil or ghee to extract their nutty, pungent flavour before being added to soups, chutneys, or vegetable dishes. In Bengali cuisine, mustard seeds are one of the five ingredients in the whole spice blend known as panch puran. Yellow mustard seeds (Brassica alba) are less pungent than the darker varieties and are commonly used in European cuisine as a pickling spice. They are strongly preservative, discouraging moulds and bacteria; hence their inclusion in pickles. When mustard seeds are pounded, they form the basis of the immense varieties of commercial brands  of the condiment known as mustard. Different varieties of mustard are made from different combinations of hulled and unhulled yellow or brown seeds. It is interesting to note mung beans. Popular in Chinese cooking, the that the pungency of mustard is due to an essential oil which is not present in the seed or the powder, but which forms when the crushed seed is mixed with water. An enzyme then causes a bitter substance in the seed to react with the water, and the hot taste of mustard emerges. Yellow mustard seeds are available from supermarkets and grocers, and brown or black mustard seeds are available at Indian grocery stores.

Muṣṭika — A wrestler in Mathurā ordered by Kasa to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Balarāma wrestled him in Kaṁsa’s arena and killed him.

Myrobalan — An Ayurvedic medicinal plant.

mystic yogayoga performed for the purpose of developing subtle material powers.




Nābhi — the saintly king who was the father of Lord Ṛṣabhadeva.

nadi — river.

Nadīyā-nāgarī — a so-called party of devotees who worship Viṣṇupriyā.

Nāga — a snake. Śeṣa-nāga is the incarnation of Lord Sankarṣaṇa, or Baladeva.

Nāga-patnīs — The “wives of the serpent” Kāliya.

nagakeśaraMesua ferrea, a forest tree with white flowers with yellow centers.

Nāgapatnī — a wife of a serpent.

nagara — a town or city.

Nāgas — a race of serpents.

Nāhuṣa — A king of the earth who was invited to occupy Indra’s throne when Indra, out of fear of a demon, fled from his post. Nāhuṣa abused his privileges, however, and was cursed by the seven sages to fall from his position.

Naimiṣa — (-araṇya) A sacred forest located exactly in the center of the universe, where the discus of Lord Viṣṇu once struck the earth. At the beginning of Kali-yuga, the chief sages of the universe assembled there to perform a thousand-year-long Soma sacrifice to counteract the bad effects of the age. During the sacrifice they heard Purāṇas and epics from Ugraśrava Sūta, including the Mahābhārataand Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Naimiṣāraṇya — a sacred forest in central India where the eighteen Purāṇas were spoken and which is said to be the hub of the universe.

naimittika-karma — “Occasional ritual duties” enjoined for specific circumstances, such as a death in one’s family during the performance of a sacrifice.

Naishada — a forest dweller, desdants of Naishada, an ugly dwarf born of the thigh of King Vena.

naiṣkarma — another term for akarma; action for which one suffers no reaction because it is performed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

naiṣṭhika-brahmacārī — one who has been celibate since birth.

nakṣatra — star; also refers to an asterism. In Vedic astrology there are twenty-seven asterisms.

Nakula — One of the twin sons of Mādrī, who were the youngest of the five Pāṇḍavas.

Nakula — the fourth of the Pāṇḍavas. He was the son of Mādrī by the twin Aśvinī Kumāra demigods. Nakula and his brother Sahadeva were taken care of by Kuntī after Madrī entered the funeral fire of Pāṇḍu. Nakula was reputed for being handsome.

nakula — a mongoose, the enemy of snakes.

Nalakūvara and Maṇigrīva — The sons of the treasurer of the demigods, Kuvera, who were cursed for their decadence by the great devotee-sage Nārada and who, by his blessing, were delivered from their materialism by Lord Kṛṣṇa.

nāma — Lit. “name,” especially the holy name of the Lord.

nāma-aparadha — Offense to the holy name.

nāma-aparādha — an offense against the holy name of the Lord.

nāma-bhajana — See nāma-saṅkīrtana.

nāma-haṭṭa — A place outside a temple where devotees gather to hear and chant about Kṛṣṇa.

nāma-saṅkīrtana — Chanting of the names of the Supreme Lord.

nāma-saṅkīrtana — congregational chanting of the holy names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, usually accompanied by hand cymbals (karatālas) and clay mṛdaṅga drums. Lord Caitanya and the Vedic literatures recommend this saṅkīrtana as the most effective means of God-realization in the present age of Kali.

nāma-smaraṇa — Remembrance of Kṛṣṇa’s names.

nāmābhasa — The “shadow of the Lord’s names.” Chanting done without offense but also without love. Nāmābhāsa earns one immediate liberation from material existence.

nāmābhāsa — the stage just above the offensive stage of chanting the name of God, in which one realizes a dim reflection of the holy name.

Nāmācāryaācārya of the chanting of the holy names (Haridāsa Ṭhākura).

Nāmāmṛta — A book of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s written instructions on the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.

namaskāra — Obeisances.

namaste — Hindu greetings, meaning “obeisances.”

Nāmmālvāra — a famous South Indian devotee who lived before Rāmānuja and composed many beautiful prayers.

Namo nārāyaṇāya — greeting of Māyāvādī sannyāsīs meaning “I offer my obeisances to Nārāyaṇa.”

nan — baked leavened bread.

Nanda Mahārāja — the king of the cowherd men of Vṛndāvana, Vraja, foster father of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Nanda — (-gopa) The king of the cowherds of Vraja. He and his wife Yaśodā, the greatest of devotees in the mood of parents, raised Kṛṣṇa from His infancy until He left Vraja for Mathurā.

Nanda — one of the chief personal servants of Lord Nārāyaṇa in His spiritual abode, Vaikuṇṭha.

Nanda-gokula — The cowherd community of Nanda Mahārāja.

Nanda-grāma — The capital of Nanda Mahārāja, on Nandīśvara Hill, seventeen miles north of Govardhana.

Nanda-kiśora — Nanda-kumāra Kṛṣṇa, “the young son of Nanda.”

Nanda-mahotsava — the festival of Nanda Mahārāja; Kṛṣṇa’s birthday.

Nanda-nandana — Kṛṣṇa, “the darling son of Nanda.”

Nanda-nandana — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, who is the darling son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Nanda-vraja — “The cow pastures of Nanda,” the sacred district of Mathurā that is the manifestation on earth of Goloka Vṛndāvana, the supreme abode of Kṛṣṇa.

Nandana — (-vana) The pleasure gardens of the demigods in Svargaloka.

Nandana-kānana — the beautiful forest in the celestial world where Lord Indra sports with his wife and where there is heavenly music and dancing.

nandavana — lower garden.

Nandi — the bull carrier of Śiva found in many Śiva temples.

nāndī-śloka — the introductory portion of a drama, which is written to invoke good fortune.

Nandīśvara Hill — The hill, nondifferent from Lord Kṛṣṇa, on which Nanda Mahārāja’s capital stands.

nara — the human race or a human being.

nara-deva — the king, who is an earthly god.

Nara-Nārāyaṇa Ṛṣi — an incarnation of the Supreme Lord appearing as two sages to teach by example the practice of austerities.

Nara-Nārāyaṇa — The incarnation of the Supreme Lord as the twin sons of Dharma and Mūrti. Nara is an empowered jīva, and Nārāyaṇa is directly the Personality of Godhead. They live at Badarika, practicing severe austerities and meditation for the welfare and instruction of the world. Nārada Muni is among their disciples.

Nārada Muni — A great devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa who travels throughout the spiritual and material worlds singing the Lord’s glories and preaching the path of devotional service.

Nārada Muni — a pure devotee of the Lord, one of the sons of Lord Brahmā, who travels throughout the universes in his eternal body, glorifying devotional service while delivering the science of bhakti. He is the spiritual master of Vyāsadeva and of many other great devotees.

Nārada-bhakti Sūtra — Instructions on the science of devotional service, written by Nārada Muni.

Nārada-pañcarātra — Nārada Muni’s book on the processes of Deity worship and mantra meditation.

Naradeva — lit., “God in human form.” A title for the king, who is generally accepted to be God’s representative in human society.

narādhama — The lowest of men.

narādhama — the lowest of mankind, those who are socially and politically developed but have no religious principles.

Naraka — (-asura) A powerful demon, son of Lord Varāha and the goddess of the earth. He terrorized the universe until killed by Kṛṣṇa.

Narakāsura — the father of King Bhagadatta. He was killed by Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Narakeśvara — a name for the Supreme Lord as well as for Yamarāja, meaning “he who is in charge of the hellish regions”.

nārakī — candidate for hellish life.

Narakuṇḍa — lake of hell.

Narasiṁha, Lordsee: Nṛsiṁhadeva

Nārāyaṇa — The Personality of Godhead as the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha, the infinitely opulent spiritual world.

Nārāyaṇa — a name for the majestic four-armed form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who is the source and goal of all living entities.” The resting place of all living entities, who presides over the Vaikuṇṭha planets; Lord Viṣṇu, He is an expansion of Kṛṣṇa.

Nārāyaṇa-bhakta — A devotee of Lord Nārāyaṇa

Nārāyaṇa-para — one who has dedicated his life to the Supreme Lord Nārāyana, or Kṛṣṇa.

Nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇa — a devotee of Lord Nārāyaṇa.

Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura — A Vaiṣṇava spiritual master in the disciplic succession from Lord Caitanya and writer of many standard Vaiṣṇava hymns.

Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura — a renowned Vaiṣṇava spiritual master in the disciplic succession from Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is famous for his many compositions of devotional songs. He appeared in the 16th century in Khetari. in the West Bengal district of Rajasahi, just north of Nadia. He was devoted to Lord Caitanya from birth. His father was a king and dedicated to Lord Nityānanda. Narottama went to Vṛndāvana and became the initiated disciple of Lokanātha Gosvāmī. He studied under Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī and preached widely throughout India, making many thousands of disciples.

naṣṭa-buddhi — bereft of all good sense.

naṣṭa-prajña — bereft of all intelligence.

Natarāja — Śiva as the cosmic dancer.

Nava-yauvana day — the day on which Lord Jagannātha, Śrīmatī Subhadrā and Lord Balarāma enter seclusion for fifteen days before Ratha-yātrā.

Nava-yauvana — the eternal transcendental form of Kṛṣṇa as pre-youth.

Navadvīpa — Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s eternal abode, nondifferent from Kṛṣṇa’s abode Vṛndāvana. On earth Navadvīpa is manifest in the district of Nadia, West Bengal.

Navadvīpa — the topmost holy place, ninety miles north of Calcutta. In the 15th and 16th centuries the city became the greatest center of Sanskrit learning in all of India. Lord Caitanya, the yuga-avatāra, appeared there in the late 15th century and propagated the chanting of the Holy Names all over India. His appearance made Navadvīpa the crest jewel of all holy places in the present age.

navagraha — nine planets.

Navamī — the ninth day of the waxing and waning moon.

Nawab Hussein Shah — the Muhammdan governor of Bengal during the time of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s appearance.

nawab — Muslim ruler or a big landowner

 Nectar of Devotion, The — Śrīla Prabhupāda’s summary study of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu.

 Nectar of Instruction, The — Śrīla Prabhupāda’s English translation of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s ŚrīUpadeśāmṛta.

neti neti — “Not this, not this.” A phrase from the Bṛhad-araṇyaka Upaniṣad indicating the process of elimination by which one philosophically distinguishes between matter and spirit.

neti neti — the negative process of the jñānīs: “This is not spirit, this is not Brahman.”

Netrotsava festival — the festival of painting the eyes of Lord Jagannātha during the Nava-yauvana ceremony.

 New Vrindavan — A spiritual village established by Śrīla Prabhupāda near Wheeling, West Virginia.

Newman, John Henry (1801-1890) — an English cardinal who became one of the most outstanding European religious thinkers and essayists of the 19th century. He spent his life defending Christian truth against various forms of so-called rationalism.

nidrā — sleep, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

nigarbha-yogī — a yogī who worships the Supersoul without form.

nija-dharma — one’s constitutional position.

Nīlā — the Lord’s energy that destroys the creation.

Nīlācala — Nīlādri . See Puri.

Nilambar Chakravarti — the grand father of Sri Caitanya Maha-prabhu.

Nilambara Chakravarti — the great astrolger and scholar Vaisnava, Garga Muni, of Krsna-lila.

Nimai — Lord Caitanya in His childhood.

nimbu pāṇi — fresh lemonade drink

nimi — a devotee king, ruler of Videha.

nindakas — blasphemers.

nirantara — without cessation, continuously, constantly.

nirgrantha-muni — a completely liberated saint.

nirguṇa — “Devoid of qualities.” When applied to the Supreme, a word that indicates He has no material qualities.

nirguṇa — without material qualities; uncontaminated by the three modes of material nature.

nirguṇa-brahma — the impersonal conception of the Supreme Truth as being without any qualities.

Nirjala — fasting completely, even from water.

nirjana-bhajana — Solitary spiritual practices.

nirmama — consciousness that nothing belongs to oneself.

nirodha — the winding up of all energies employed in creation.

Nirupti Dictionary — A Sanskrit dictionary.

nirvāṇa — Cessation of all material activities. Buddhists and other impersonalists regard nirvāṇa as requiring obliteration of individual existence, but Vaiṣṇavas regard ceasing from material activities to be only the beginning of real spiritual life, in which an individual acts in pure devotional service.

nirvāṇa — the cessation of material activities and existence, which according to Vaiṣṇava philosophy, does not deny spiritual activities and existence; freedom from and the end of the process of materialistic life.

nirveda — indifference, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Nirviśeṣa-vādīs — impersonalists who accept an Absolute but deny that He has any qualities of His own.

Niṣādas — A degraded forest tribe, descended from Bāhuka, who was born from the corpse of the evil King Vena.

niṣiddhācāra — acting in a way forbidden in the śāstra.

niṣkāma — Without material desire.

niṣkāma — free from material desires.

niṣkiñcana — free from all material possessions; having nothing; a renunciant.

niṣṭhitā — Filled with faith.

nistraiguṇya — the transcendental position above the three modes of nature.

Nīti Śāstras — A collection of social instructions by Cāṇakya Paṇḍita.

nitya-baddha — Eternally conditioned.

nitya-baddha — the eternally conditioned soul, bound in the material world.

nitya-karma — Regular, obligatory ritual duties.

nitya-līla — The eternal pastimes of the Lord or His devotees in the spiritual world.

Nitya-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s eternally present pastimes.

nitya-mukta — “Eternally liberated,” a person who has never fallen into material illusion and never deviated from the Supreme Lord’s loving service. Nitya-muktas generally live in the spiritual kingdom of God, but they sometimes descend to the material world to preach and for other special missions.

nitya-mukta — an eternally liberated soul.

nitya-muktas — souls who never come in contact with the external energy.

nitya-siddha — An eternally liberated soul.

nitya-siddha — one who has attained eternal perfection attained by never forgetting Kṛṣṇa at any time; an ever-purified associate of the Lord

Nityānanda Prabhu — the incarnation of Lord Balarāma who appeared as the principal associate of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Nityānanda — The incarnation of Lord Balarāma who is a principal associate of Lord Caitanya.

Nivātakavacas — a sect of demons who were killed by Arjuna at the request of Indra.

nivṛtti-mārga — the path of renunciation, which leads to liberation; directions for giving up the material world for higher spiritual understanding.

niyama — restraint of the senses.

niyamāgraha — either following rules and regulations insufficiently (niyama-agraha) or fanatically without understanding the goal (niyama-āgraha).

niyamas — The eight secondary regulations observed from the start of the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system.

nṛ-yajña — the proper reception of guests; lit. “a sacrifice to satisfy people.”

Nṛga — A son of Vaivasvata Manu who mistakenly gave the same cow in charity to two different brāhmaṇas. Cursed by the brāhmaṇas, who refused to accept any other cow in exchange, he was obliged to become a lizard at the bottom of a well. Years later, Kṛṣṇa lifted him from the well and restored his heavenly body.

Nṛga — a king who was cursed to become a snake because of a slight discrepancy in his service to brāhmaṇas. He was delivered by Lord Kṛṣṇa.

nrita-mandapa — dance hall.

Nṛsiṁha (-deva) — The pastime incarnation of the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu as half-man, half-lion. He appeared in order to deliver the saintly child Prahlāda from the persecutions of his father, Hiraṇyakaśipu. When Hiraṇyakaśipu demanded of Prahlāda, “If your God is everywhere, is He also in this pillar?” Lord Nṛsiṁha burst out of the pillar and ripped Hiraṇyakaśipu apart.

Nṛsiṁha Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas. It describes the pastimes of the Supreme Lord in His half-lion, half-man incarnation.

Nṛsiṁha-caturdaśī festival — the appearance day of Lord Nṛsiṁha.

Nṛsiṁhadeva — the half-man, half-lion incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa, who killed the demon Hiranyakasipu and saved His devotee, Prahlada Mahārāja.

nutmeg — the fragrant nut  found in the centre of the fruit of the densely foliated evergreen tree Myristica fragrans. The fleshy fruit of the nutmeg tree resembles an apricot. When it is ripe, it splits in half, revealing the beautiful, brilliant scarlet, net-like membrane, or avil, known as mace, which closely enwraps a brittle shell containing the glossy brown, oily nutmeg. Nutmeg is egg-shaped and is about 2.5 cm (1-inch) in diameter, with a sweet, warm, and highly spicy flavour. Nutmeg is used in many cuisines of the world. It is often an ingredient in the North Indian spice blend known as garam masala and is used in cakes and sweet dishes. It is wonderful with pumpkin, squash, and sweet potato. In Italian cuisine it is very popular in spinach dishes and combines well with cheese. Nutmeg is also a common flavouring in the Levant and in various spicy dishes of South East Asia. Whole nutmegs are best ground straight into the dish into which they are being used, as once grated, nutmeg quickly loses its flavour. Whole nutmegs are available at specialty stores and well-stocked supermarkets and grocery stores.

nyāya — The ancient system of epistemology and logic taught by Gautama Ṛṣi.

nyāya — logic. See: Gautama.

Nyāya-śāstras — Vedic textbooks of logic.

Nyāyu-śāstra — the Sanskrit literary works, written by the ancient Ṛṣi Gautama Muni and his followers, that teach the philosophical science of logic. Nyayu (or dialectics) was founded by Gautama and is one of the six major schools of Indian philosophy.




oatmeal — the hulled oat grain that has been rolled or cut into flakes. There are three basic types — quick cook, or rolled oats, which generally has small flakes; hulled or gritted oatmeal; and steel cut oatmeal. Oatmeal is among the most nutritious of all the grains — it is 16.7% protein and is rich in inositol (one of the B complex vitamins), iron, phosphorus, and thiamine. Oatmeal is generally used as porridge or muesli, but is also baked in breads and savoury dishes. It is available at any grocery store.

 Ocean of Milk — One of the seven oceans surrounding the “islands” of Jambūdvīpa, the earthly planetary system. Within the Ocean of Milk lies an eternal spiritual planet, Śvetadvīpa, the abode of Kṣīrodaka-śāyī Viṣṇu.

Oḍana-ṣaṣṭhī — ceremony at the beginning of winter when Lord Jagannātha gets a winter shawl.

okra — the rigid green seed pods of he plant Hibiscus esculentus. These elegantly curved and pointed pods are used as a vegetable in many cuisines of the world, notably North Indian, Middle Eastern, and Creole. Its flavour resembles eggplant but with a somewhat mucilaginous texture. Choose crisp, fresh, green pods no longer than 10 cm (4 inches). Avoid shrivelled, limp, dull, or bruised specimens. Okra is available at quality greengrocers and produce markets.

olive oil — the oil extracted from the fruits of the Mediterranean tree olea europaea. The finest olive oil is cold-pressed from fresh ripe olives and has a pale-yellow or greenish colour and a very delicate flavour. Cruder versions of olive oil are second pressings made under heat. I prefer to have two grades of olive oil in the kitchen — mild, cold-pressed extra-virgin olive oil for salads and uncooked dishes, and a pure grade olive oil with a high smoking-point for cooking. Choosing olive oil is much a matter of personal taste and preference. Olive oil is used in many cuisines of the world — not only in Mediterranean cooking. Good quality olive oil is available at specialty and Continental grocers.

olives — the fruits of the semi-tropical evergreen tree olea europaea. Used in all types of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, European, and Creole cuisines, olives vary in size, colour, oil content, and flavour. Green olives are gathered unripe, whereas black olives are those which have been allowed to ripen. Crude olives straight from the tree are intensely bitter and quite inedible. They have to be washed to remove the bitterness, then pickled for some months in salt water until they resemble the olives as we know them. See also: Kalamata olives.

om tat sat — the three transcendental syllables used by brāhmaṇas for satisfaction of the Supreme when chanting Vedic hymns or offering sacrifice. They indicate the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead.

oṁkāraoṁ, the root of Vedic knowledge; known as the mahā-vākya, the supreme sound; the transcendental syllable which represents Kṛṣṇa, and which is vibrated by transcendentalists for attainment of the Supreme when undertaking sacrifices, charities and penances.

orange blossom water — the fragrant water distilled from orange blossoms and used particularly in Middle Eastern cuisine. France produces and exports high-quality orange-blossom water, as does the Levant, particularly Beirut. It can be used in savoury rices, sweets, and drinks.

oregano — a piquant herb famous in Greek and Italian cuisine. Oregano is botanically confused with marjoram. In fact for many years both marjoram and oregano were known as Marjorana hortensis. There is still confusion today — oregano is still sometimes known as “Wild Marjoram”. Generally, what is purchased as oregano today is most probably Origanum vulgare, with a strong, piquant, sweet flavour and a pleasantly bitter, aromatic undertone. Oregano is excellent with any tomato dish, especially pizza and varieties of tomato dishes that include pasta sauce. Its flavour marries well with basil. Oregano is available at any continental grocer, supermarket, or specialty shop.




pāṇi — water.

pāda-sevana — the devotional process of serving at the Lord’s feet.

pada-yātrā — A traveling missionary festival, conducted mainly on foot.

padayātrā — foot journey; to go on pilgrimage by foot.

paḍichā — a superintendent of an Orissan temple.

Padma Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas, or Vedic historical scriptures. It consists of conversation between Lord Śiva and his wife, Pārvati.

Padma — The goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, consort of Lord Nārāyaṇa.

Padma — the lotus flower held by Lord Viṣṇu.

Padmanābha — a name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who has a lotus flower sprouting from His navel” or “He whose navel resembles a lotus.”

padya — Fragrant water used to wash the feet of an honorable guest.

pādya — water ceremoniously offered for washing feet.

paise — 100 paise equals one rupee.

pakka — ripe, mature, reliable

palak — spinach.

pālana-śakti — the power to rule and maintain the living entities.

palanquin — a seat that can be carried by four men, usually used to transport great personages or ladies.

pālas — attendants who look after a temple’s external affairs.

palāśa treeButea frondosa, a tree with fragrant, large, bright orange flowers.

Pallavas — South Indian dynasty of rulers.

PAMHO. AGTSP. — An acronym, often used in written correspondence as a standard greeting among devotees: “Please accept my humble obeisances. All glories to Śrīla Prabhupāda.”

pan — Betel nut prepared with lime and spices and wrapped in a leaf for chewing.

pañca-gavya — five kinds of products of the cow used to bathe the Deity.

pañca-mahābhūta — the five gross elements: earth, water, fire, air and ether.

pañca-mahāyajña — the five daily sacrifices performed by householders to become free from unintentional sins.

Pañca-tattva — the Lord-Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, His plenary portion-Nityānanda Prabhu, His incarnation-Advaita Prabhu, His energy-Gadādhara Prabhu, and His devotee-Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura.

Pañcajana — A powerful demon who lived in a conch in the ocean. He kidnapped the son of Kṛṣṇa’s teacher, Sāndīpani. Kṛṣṇa killed Pañcajana and rescued the boy.

Pāñcajanya — the conchshell of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Pāñcāla — the kingdom of King Drupada.

pañcāla — the five sense objects.

pañcāmṛta — five kinds of nectar used to bathe the Deity.

Pañcarātra — Vedic literatures describing the process of Deity worship. See also: Nārada-pañcarātra

pañcarātra-vidhi — the standard Vaiṣṇava method of temple worship taught in the Pañcarātras.

Pañcarātras — Vaiṣṇava tantras that teach one to worship the Supreme Lord by serving His Deity forms and chanting mantras addressed to Him.

Pāñcarātric — The method of formal worship taught in the Pañcarātras.

pañcarātrika — the process of worshiping the Deity, as explained by Nārada Muni. Also, a five-day fast, as explained by Kauṇḍilya Ṛṣi.

pañcarātrika-vidhi — the devotional process of Deity worship and mantra meditation as found in the Pañcarātra literature.

panch masala — a mixture of five whole spices used in preparing vegetable dishes.

panch puransee: Five spice

Pāñcharātrikī — The rules and regulations of Deity worship, as set down by Nārada Muni in his Nārada-pañcharātra.

pañcopāsanā — worship by impersonalist Māyāvādīs of five deities (Viṣṇu, Durgā, Brahmā, Gaṇeśa and Vivasvān) that is motivated by the desire to ultimately abandon all conceptions of a personal Absolute.

paṇḍa — Temple priest, usually of a caste brāhmaṇa family.

pāṇḍā — a brahmāṇa guide at temples and holy places; see also: paṇḍita.

pandal — lit., “tent.” Refers to religious programs and lectures, typically held under large tents.

Pāṇḍavas — The five sons of Pāṇḍu. The three older Pāṇḍavas Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma, and Arjuna were born to Pāṇḍu’s wife Kuntī by the three demigods Yamarāja, Vāyu, and Indra. The other two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva, were born of Pāṇḍu’s other wife Mādrī by the Aśvini-kumāras.

Pāṇḍavas — the five pious ksatriya brothers Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. They were intimate friends of Lord Kṛṣṇa's and inherited the leadership of the world upon their victory over the Kurus in the Battle of Kurukṣetra.

paṇḍita — A scholar.

Paṇḍita — a scholar learned in Vedic literature, not only academically but also by dint of spiritual realization. Though this is the proper definition of the word, the term is also loosely applied to any scholar.

paṇḍita — a learned scholar.

paṇḍita-maṇi — word indicating that Kṛṣṇa is honored even by learned scholars.

Pāṇḍitaka — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

Pāṇḍu — The Kuru emperor after Vicitravīrya. When Vicitravīrya died childless, Pāṇḍu was born from one of Vicitravīrya’s wives, Ambalikā, by Dvaipāyana Vyasa.

Pāṇḍu — a great king of the Kuru dynasty, and the father of the Pāṇḍavas, Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva; the heroes of the Mahābhārata. He had two wives, Kuntī and Mādrī. He was a younger brother of Dhṛtarāṣṭra's who died early, leaving his five young sons under the care of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.

pāṇḍu-vijaya — the function of carrying Lord Jagannātha to His car prior to the Ratha-yātrā procession.

Pāṇḍyas — the South Indian dynasty that ruled over Madurai and Rāmeśvaram in South India.

paneer (panir) — Indian cheese, curd made from fresh milk. See: curd cheese.

pāṅji-ṭikā — further explanations of a subject.

Pāpahāriṇī — a name for the Ekādaśī that occurs during the dark part of the month of Caitra. It means “that which takes away sin.” Another name for this day, having the same meaning, is Pāpamocani.

Pāpānkuṣā — the name for the Ekādaśī that occurs during the light part of the month of Aśvina. It means “that which has the power to pierce sin personified.”

pappadam — plain or spiced wafer-thin brittle disks made from dried dal paste that swell into thin tasty crispbreads when deep-fried or toasted over an open flame. Ranging from 7-25 cm (3-10 inches) in width, pappadams are popular served as accompaniments to a full meal, as snacks, or as party nibblers. They're available at Indian grocery stores.

paprika — the bright red powder made from the dried, sweet, chili-pepper pods of the many varieties of Capsicum annuum. Good paprika has a brilliant red colour and because it is not hot, it can be used in generous quantities, giving dishes a rich red hue. It is also very nutritious having a high vitamin C content. Paprika is the national spice of Hungary and is featured in Hungarian and Spanish as well as North Indian cuisines (where it is used in dals and sauces). It is available at grocery stores.

para — transcendental.

Para-brahman — (param brahma) The supreme personal form of the Absolute Truth.

parā-prakṛti — the superior, spiritual energy or nature of the Lord.

para-upakāra — helping others.

para-vidyā — transcendental knowledge.

Parabrahman — the Supreme Brahman, the Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

parakīya — the relationship between a married woman and her paramour; particularly the relationship between the damsels of Vṛndāvana and Krṣṇa.

parakīya-rasa — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s paramour relationship with the gopīs, as distinguished from His svakīya relationship with His wives.

parakīya-rasa — relationship with Kṛṣṇa as His paramour.

Param Brahman — the Supreme Brahman, the Personality of Godhead, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Param dhāma — the eternal planets of the spiritual world.

paraṁ gati — Ultimate goal.

paraṁ-padam — The supreme situation. May refer either to the spiritual world or the impersonal brahmajyoti effulgence.

parama — Supreme.

parama-puruṣārtha — the supreme goal of life.

parama-vidvān — the most learned scholar.

paramahaṁsa bābājī — he who is on the highest platform of spiritual asceticism and who has given up all social and caste designations. The only designation maintained by him is that of being a tiny servant of the unlimited Supreme Personality of Godhead.

paramahaṁsa — “Perfect swan,” a completely pure devotee of the Supreme Lord, beyond any influence of material illusion.

paramahaṁsa — a topmost, God-realized, swanlike devotee of the Supreme Lord; highest stage of sannyāsa.

paramahaṁsa-ṭhākura — one who acts as an ācārya, directly presenting Lord Kṛṣṇa by spreading His name and fame.

Paramaṁ padam — the Lord’s transcendental abode.

Paramātmā — The “Supersoul,” the aspect of the Supreme Lord who accompanies every conditioned soul as the indwelling witness and guide.

Paramātmā — the Supersoul, the localized aspect Viṣṇu expansion of the Supreme Lord residing in the heart of each embodied living entity and pervading all of material nature.

Parameśvara — The Personality of Godhead, who is the “supreme controller.”

Parameśvara — the supreme controller, Lord Kṛṣṇa.

paramparā — An authorized Vaiṣṇava disciplic succession. More ordinarily, any tradition.

paramparā — the disciplic succession through which spiritual knowledge is transmitted by bona-fide spiritual masters.

Parantapa — a name of Arjuna, “chastiser of the enemies.”

parārdha — One half of the duration of Lord Brahmā’s life.

parārdha — one half of Brahmā's lifetime of 311 trillion 40 billion years.

Parasara Muni — a great sage, the speaker of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa, and the father of Śrīla Vyāsadeva.

Parāśara — The great sage who spoke the Viṣṇu Purāṇa to Maitreya and was the father of Dvaipāyana Vyasa.

Paraśurāma — One of the daśa-avatāras, the ten most famous incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu. He appeared as a brāhmaṇa but had the qualities of a warrior. When Paraśurāma’s father was murdered by the wicked King Kartavīrya, Paraśurama vowed to exterminate all the kṣatriyas on earth, and he fulfilled that vow twenty-one times.

Paraśurāma — the sixth incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa, who appeared in ancient times to overthrow the warrior class when they had become degraded, who destroyed twenty-one consecutive generations of lawless members of the ruling class. He taught the science of weapons to Droṇa and Karṇa.

paravyoma — the spiritual sky.

paricchada — the total aggregate of the senses.

parijāta — An exquisite flower that grows only in the spiritual world and on the heavenly planets. Defeating the opposition of Indra, Kṛṣṇa brought a parijāta tree from Svargaloka for His wife Satyabhāmā and planted it in her garden in Dvāraka.

pārijāta — an extraordinarily fragrant white flower that Lord Kṛṣṇa brought from the heavenly planets for His wife Rukmiṇi.

parikrama — A walking pilgrimage.

parikrama — the path that circles a sacred tract such as Vrndavan or Braj

Parīkṣit — The son of Abhimanyu who inherited the Kuru throne from Yudhiṣṭhira. Kṛṣṇa personally saved him in his mother’s womb, and thus the child was named Parīkṣit because he was searching (parikṣeta) for the person who had protected him.

Parīkṣit — the son of Abhimanyu and grandson of Arjuna. When the Pāṇḍavas retired from kingly life, he was crowned king of the entire world. He was later cursed to die by an immature brāhmaṇa boy and became the hearer of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam from Śukadeva Gosvāmī, and thus attained perfection.

pariṇāma-vāda — the theory of transformation in the creation of the universe.

pariṣad — A liberated associate of Kṛṣṇa.

Pāriṣats — devotees who are personal associates of the Lord.

parivrājaka — (-ācārya) A man in the third of the four stages of the renounced order (sannyāsa). The word indicates that he wanders everywhere to preach.

parivrājakācārya — the third stage of sannyāsa, wherein the devotee constantly travels and preaches.

parmesan — the most famous of all the grana, or matured hard cheeses of Italy, parmesan, or parmigiano, takes at least two years to come to maturity, resulting in its traditional sharp flavour. Parmesan cheese should be bought in pieces to be freshly grated over sauces, pasta, or rice, or added to cooked dishes.

parṣadas — Personal associates of the Supreme Lord.

parsley — one of the best known and most extensively used culinary herbs in western cuisine. There are numerous cultivated varieties of parsley, but the ornamental curled variety is the most popular as a garnish, and the flat-leaved parsley is most favoured in Italian and other Mediterranean cuisines. Both are varieties of Petroselinum crispum Healthful parsley leaves, with their familiar mild, agreeable flavour, are an excellent source of vitamin C, iron, iodine, and other minerals. Parsley is appealing to the eye nose, and taste, will sweeten the breath, and is a natural herbal deodorizer. It is a pleasant addition to an enormous variety of savoury dishes. It is available at produce markets, greengrocers, and supermarkets.

Pārtha — “Son of Pṛtha (Kuntī)” , an epithet of Arjuna, Yudhiṣṭhira, or Bhīma.

Pārtha-sārathi — Kṛṣṇa, the chariot driver of Arjuna (Pārtha).

Pārvata Muni — a great sage who is a constant companion of Nārada.

Pārvatī — Lord Śiva’s eternal consort, especially in her incarnation as the daughter of the Himalaya mountains (parvata).

Pārvatī — Sati, Lord Śiva's consort, meaning daughter of the mountain. She was reborn as the daughter of Himālaya after consuming herself in mystic fire at Dakṣa's sacrificial arena.

pāsa — a mystic noose used to capture Bali Mahārāja.

pāṣaṇḍa — atheism.

pāṣaṇḍī — An atheist; one who thinks the Lord and the demigods to be equal or who considers devotional activities to be material.

pāṣaṇḍī — an “offender,” or atheist; a nonbeliever; one who thinks God and the demigods are on the same level, or who considers devotional activities to be material.

Pāṣcālī — another name of Draupadī, the wife of the Pāṇḍavas.

pasta — the finest pasta is made from durum wheat, which is one of the hardest varieties of wheat. When making pasta from durum wheat only the endosperm of the grain kernel is milled into semolina, which is then mixed with water to make the dough. When preparing pasta dishes, note that the completed pasta should be tender without being soft and sticky — this is called al dente. Pasta comes in many shapes and sizes. Notable varieties used in Kurma's Vegetarian Dishes are as follows — 1. Conchiglie — a shell-shaped pasta 2. Fettuccine — a flat, ribbon noodle with a coiled, bird's-nest appearance 3. Lasagna — flat sheets of pasta used for baking in layers 4. Linguine — a very thin, narrow ribbon noodle 5. Penne rigate — short, tubular,  ridged pasta, like short macaroni, but with angled ends 6. Rigatoni — a ridged short variety of macaroni 7. Risoni — rice-shaped pasta used for soups 8. Spaghetti — common string-like noodles of many varieties 9. Trenette — narrow ribbon pasta similar to linguine 10. Vermicelli — a thin variety of spaghetti

Pāśupatāstra — the ultimate weapon of Lord Śiva. This weapon was used by Arjuna to kill Jayadratha.

Pātāla — (-loka) The lowest of the seven subterranean heavenly planets. It is inhabited by the Nāgas, great serpents.

Pātālaloka — the lowest of the universe’s fourteen planetary systems; also, the lower planets in general; also the seventh tier of the lower planetary systems, where Bali Mahārāja reigns.

Patañjali — a great authority and propounder on the aṣṭāṅga mystic yoga system and author of the Yoga-sūtra. He imagined the form of the Absolute Truth in everything.

paṭhana — a brāhmaṇa’s duty to be conversant with the Vedic scriptures; study of the scriptures.

pati — Husband.

pati — a husband.

pati-guru — Lit., “husband-spiritual master.” A term of respect addressed to a man by his wife.

patita-pāvana — Savior of the fallen souls.

Patita-pāvana — Lord Caitanya, the deliverer of the fallen souls.

pātra — players in a drama.

paugaṇḍa — The age between five and ten years.

paugaṇḍa — the age from five to ten years.

Pauṇḍraka — A foolish king of Karūṣa who was convinced that he was the incarnation of Lord Vāsudeva and that Kṛṣṇa was an impostor. When Pauṇḍraka demanded that Kṛṣṇa surrender His weapons, Kṛṣṇa complied by releasing His sudarśana disc to cut off Pauṇḍraka’s head.

Pauṇḍraka — an enemy of Lord Kṛṣṇa who attempted to imitate Him.

Pauṇḍram — the conchshell of Bhīmasena.

paura-jana — the seven elements that constitute the body.

pautra — patience and gravity.

pavitram — pure.

peanut oil — also known as ground-nut oil. The method of extraction is particularly important to the value of peanut oil. High-quality, more expensive peanut oil comes from cold pressing. Lesser-quality peanut oils are produced with the aid of chemical solvents. The oil is then refined and heated and treated with anti-oxidants. Cold pressed health-food store peanut oils are good substitutes for olive oil in salads, whereas the cheaper and more refined peanut oils usually sold at supermarkets are good for deep-frying, because peanut oil has a smoking point of up to 230C/450F and has a bland flavour.

pepper — the small, round berries of the woody perennial evergreen vine Piper nigrum. Black pepper, white pepper, and green pepper are all obtained from these same berries in different stages of maturity. For black pepper, the berries are picked whilst green, left in heaps to ferment sun-dried, and allowed to shrivel and turn dark brown or black. Thus the whole berry, including the dark outer hull, forms what we know as black pepper. White pepper is produced from fully ripened berries, which are greenish-yellow when picked and at the point of turning red. Then they are soaked in water, the outer hull is rubbed off, and the grey inner berries are sun-dried until they turn creamy white, to become what is known as white pepper.  Green peppercorns are soft, immature berries that have been picked and preserved in brine, or freeze dried. Black pepper is characterized by a penetrating odour and a hot, biting, and extremely pungent flavour; milder-flavoured white pepper is generally appreciated in European cuisine. Either way, black and white pepper are used in practically every cuisine in the world. Although available pre-ground, discerning  cooks prefer the superior flavour of freshly ground peppercorns, for which a pepper mill is an essential acquisition.

Phala-śrutis — Sanskrit verses granting various benedictions.

phalgu — weak, temporary.

Phalguna — another name for Arjuna; one of the months corresponding to January/February or February/March.

phul gobhi — cauliflower

pika — Indian cuckoo.

pika — the Indian cuckoo bird.

pimiento — skinned sweet red peppers of a small, elongated variety of Capsicum annuum. They are preserved in saltwater or sometimes in oil, and are used in Mediterranean cooking to add bright colours and sweet flavour, especially to salads. They also make an attractive garnish when drained and cut into strips.

piṇḍa — an offering made to departed ancestors.

pinenut — also known as pine kernel, pignolia, or pinoli. Pinenuts come from the stone pine (Pinus pinea), a beautiful Mediterranean pine tree. The pine cones are gathered, the seeds are shaken out and cracked, and the small white or cream-coloured kernels are extracted. Their delicious, delicate nutty taste has made them a very popular ingredient in Italian, Spanish, and Middle Eastern cuisine. They are available at specialty, Continental, or Middle Eastern grocers.

pinto beans — protein-rich beans related to the kidney bean, from the well-known vulgaris family. Much-used in Mexican-style cuisine, it can be substituted with kidney beans if unavailable.

pippalaFicus religiosa, a large tree of the fig family with glossy, dark green leaves.

Pippalāyana — A son of Ṛṣabhadeva who became a prominent sage on Tapoloka.

Piśāca — a hobgoblin follower of Lord Śiva.

pita — a lightly leavened round Middle Eastern bread with a soft crust and usually a hollow centre. Generally made without oil, it is baked in a very hot oven for a few minutes, where it puffs up, deflating when cooled. There are many versions throughout the Middle East, each one with a different name. The term pita has become a popular name for these breads in the West. Whether in Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Morocco, Algeria, or Armenia, some version of round, slightly leavened bread is always available, especially for the famous mezze, or hor d’oeuvres.

pitās — forefathers; especially those departed ancestors who have been promoted to one of the higher planets.

pitha — the pedestal or altar of the Deity. The pitha is in the sanctum sanctorum (inner sanctum)

pitṛ-yajña — offering oblations of water before one’s forefathers.

Pitṛloka — the planet of the ancestors, a heavenly planet.

pitta — bile, one of the three main elements of the body.

Plakṣa-dvīpa — One of the nine “islands” surrounding Mount Meru in Bhū-maṇḍala. Bounded on its inner side by the Ocean of Salt and on its outer side by the Ocean of Liquor, it forms the second ring of land beyond Meru. It is ruled by Idhmajihva, a son of Priyavrata.

polenta — a yellow maize or cornmeal grown in northern Italy, where it is regarded as a staple food. Polenta is graded according to its texture and is available fine-, medium-, or coarse-ground. It is available at most supermarkets and health food stores.

poppy seeds — two varieties of poppy seed are referred to here — black and white. Both are the seeds of the poppy plant Papaver somniferum. The minute, kidney-shaped, bluish-black seeds have a pleasant nutty taste and crunchy texture. They are well-known in Middle Eastern and European cuisine as a topping for breads and cakes, or ground up and sweetened as a pastry filling. White poppy seeds are much used in Indian cuisine. They are even smaller than black poppy seeds, have a similar flavour, and are creamy-white. When ground, they add special flavours to Bengali dishes. They are especially used as a thickener for sauces or gravies (flours are generally not used in Indian cuisine for this purpose). Obtain black poppy seeds from any grocer or supermarket. White poppy seeds can be purchased at Indian Grocers.

poṣaṇa — the Lord’s special care and protection for His devotees.

Prabhāsa — a holy place near Dvārakā where the fratricide of the Yadu dynasty took place.

prabhu — Lit., “master.” Added to a devotee’s name by another devotee to show respect.

prabhu — master.

prabhu-datta-deśa — The geographical location assigned by the spiritual master to the disciple for service to his mission.

prabhu-datta-deśa — a place for preaching given by the spiritual master or Lord Kṛṣṇa.

prabhupāda — master at whose feet all other masters surrender.

Prabhupāda, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami — Founder-ācārya of ISKCON and foremost preacher of Kṛṣṇa consciousness in the Western world.

Prabhupāda, Śrīlasee: Śrīla Prabhupāda.

Prabhupāda-kathā — Talks by or about Śrīla Prabhupāda.

prabodha — awakening, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī — a great Vaiṣṇava poet-philosopher and devotee of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He was the uncle of Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī.

Pracetās — Ten sons of Dakṣa who under the guidance of Lord Śiva performed severe austerities and meditation to help populate the universe.

Pracetās — the ten sons of King Prācīnabarhi. They achieved perfection by worshiping Lord Viṣṇu.

Prācīnabarhi — a king who, entangled in fruitive activities, received instructions on devotional service from Nārada Muni.

Pradesh — state in India.

pradhāna — Material nature in its primordial undifferentiated state.

pradhāna — the total material energy in its unmanifest state.

Pradyumna — A son of Kṛṣṇa in Dvāraka. He appears in Dvāraka and Mathurā as the transcendental Cupid, the third of the original quadruple vyūha expansions of the Supreme Lord. He again expands from Lord Nārayaṇa in Vaikuṇṭha, in the second quadruple, as the ruler of mind.

Pradyumna — one of the four original expansions of Lord Kṛṣṇa in the spiritual world; also the first son of Lord Kṛṣṇa by Rukminī. He fought against Śālva in the fight for Dvārakā. (Vana Parva in Mahābhārata)

Prāgjyotiṣa — (-pura) The ancient capital of the demon Bhauma and home of the Durgā deity Kāmākhyā. Now known as Guwahati, it is the capital of the Indian state of Assam.

Prāgjyotiṣapura — the capital city of Narakāsura and his son Bhagadatta.

prahara — a three-hour period, eight of which make up each day.

prahararāja — a designation given to brāhmaṇas who represent the king when the throne is vacant.

Prahlāda Maharāja — a great devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa who was persecuted by his atheistic father, Hiraṇyakaśipu, but was always protected by the Lord and ultimately saved by the Lord in the form of Nṛsiṁhadeva.

Prahlāda — One of the greatest devotees of Lord Viṣṇu. As the five-year-old son of the mighty demon Hiraṇyakaśipu, he openly dared to worship the Personality of Godhead and preach His glories. Hiraṇyakaśipu tried many ways to kill the boy, but failed to harm him. Finally Lord Viṣṇu appeared as Lord Nṛsiṁha, killed Hiraṇyakaśipu, and enthroned Prahlāda as king of the demons.

prajalpa — Foolish, idle, or mundane speech. Talks unrelated to Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

prajalpa — idle talk on mundane subjects.

Prajāpatis — The original “progenitors” of the universal population. They are the sons of Brahmā other than the celibate Kumāras and Nārada.

Prajāpatis — the progenitors of living entities, chief of whom is Lord Brahmā; The demigods in charge of populating the universe.

prajās — citizens (including all species of life).

prajvāra — a kind of fever called viṣṇu jvāra.

prākāmya — the mystic ability to fulfill any of one’s desires.

prakara — the high walls surrounding the temple grounds.

Prakāśa-vigrahas — forms of the Lord manifested for His pastimes.

prakaṭa-līla — Kṛṣṇa’s “manifest pastimes,” visible to the public at specific times and in a linear sequence of events. In contrast, His “unmanifest pastimes” go on eternally, all simultaneously, and are seen only by rare, fortunate souls.

Prakaṭa-līlā — the manifestation on earth of the Supreme Lord’s pastimes.

prākṛta — on the material platform.

prākṛta-bhakta — One who performs devotional service for material gain.

prākṛta-bhaktas — materialistic devotees not advanced in spiritual knowledge.

prākṛta-sahajiyā — A class of pseudo-devotees who take the conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīscheaply and do not follow the proper regulations of vaidhi-bhakti.

prākṛta-sahajiyās — pseudo devotees of Kṛṣṇa who take devotional service cheaply and do not follow the regulations of the scripture; materialistic so-called Vaiṣṇavas who imagine themselves to be confidential devotees.

prakṛti — Material nature.

prakṛti — material nature, the energy of the Supreme (lit., that which is predominated).; the female principle enjoyed by the male puruṣa. There are two prakrtis — apara-prakṛti, the material nature, and para-prakrti, the spiritual nature (living entities)-which are both predominated over by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

prakṣepātmikā-śaktimāyā’s power to throw one into the material world.

Pralamba — (-asura) A demon sent by Kaṁsa to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Pralamba disguised himself as a cowherd boy with the intention of killing Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, but instead Balarāma killed him.

pralāpa — the ecstatic symptom of talking like a madman.

pramāda — inattention or misunderstanding of reality.

pramadā — woman, to whom a man becomes madly attached.

pramāṇa — Evidence or proof.

pramatta — one who is crazy because he cannot control his senses.

Pramlocā — the daughter of the sage Kaṇḍu by the heavenly society girl Māriṣā who became the wife of the Pracetās.

prāṇa — The vital air of life. It causes all movement in the body, physical and mental, and at death carries the soul into the next body.

prāṇa — the life air.

prāṇa-maya — (consciousness) absorbed in maintaining one’s bodily existence.

 praṇāmas — An offering of respect by joining ones hands.

praṇati — Obeisances.

pranava oṁkarasee: oṁkāra

praṇavasee: oṁkāra.

praṇaya — that mellow of love when there is a possibility to receive direct honor, but it is avoided .

prāṇāyāma — The breath control exercises in the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system.

prāṇāyāma — breath control used in yoga practice, especially aṣṭāṅga-yoga (one of the eight parts of the aṣṭanga-yoga system).

prāpta-brahma-laya — one who has already attained the Brahman position.

prāpta-svarūpas — those merged in Brahman realization.

prāpti — the mystic ability to immediately obtain any material object.

prāpti-siddhi — mystic perfection of acquisition by which the yogī can reach his hand anywhere and obtain whatever he likes.

prarocanā — the method inducing the audience to become more and more eager to hear by praising the time and place, the hero and the audience.

prasāda, or prasādam — “the mercy of Lord Kṛṣṇa.” Food prepared for the pleasure of Kṛṣṇa and offered to Him with love and devotion. Because Kṛṣṇa tastes the offering, the food becomes spiritualized and purifies anyone who eats it. See also: Mahā-prasādam

prasādam — (prasāda) The remnants of food and other items offered to the Supreme Lord. By accepting Kṛṣṇa’s prasādam one can rapidly become purified and achieve pure love of God.

prasādī — food offered to Lord Jagannātha.

prasannātmā — joyfulness attained when one is relieved from material conceptions.

praśānta — undisturbed by the modes of nature.

Prasūti — a daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu who was the wife of Dakṣa.

Prataparudra — The king of Orissa at the time of Lord Caitanya’s manifest presence and a great devotee of the Lord.

pratibimba-vāda — the worship of a form that is the reflection of a false material form.

pratigraha — accepting charity; the duty of a brāhmaṇa to accept contributions from his followers.

pratikriyā — counteracting agents such as mantras and medicines.

Pratīpa — the father of Mahārāja Śantanu.

pratiṣṭhāśā — desire for name and fame or high position.

Prativindhya — A son of Yudhiṣṭhira and Draupadī, murdered in his sleep with his brothers during the Battle of Kurukṣetra while they were still in their teens.

Prativindhya — the son of Draupadī and Yudhiṣṭhira. He was killed by Aśvatthāmā while awaking from sleep in his tent.

pratyag-ātmā — the soul, when purified of material attachment.

pratyāhāra — In the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system, the practice of withdrawing the senses.

pratyāhāra — withdrawal of the senses from all unnecessary activities, as a means of advancement in the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system..

pravartaka — introduction to a drama, when the players first enter the stage in response to the time.

pravāsa — the condition of separation of lovers who were previously intimately associated.

pravṛtti-mārga — the path of sense enjoyment in accordance with Vedic regulations.

Prayāga — (-tīrtha) The sacred city at the confluence of the three holiest rivers Yamunā, Gaṅgā, and the now underground Sarasvatī. Prayāga is today known as Allahabad.

Prayāga — (modern Allahabad) a very sacred place, mentioned in the Purāṇas, situated at the confluence of the holy Ganges, Yamunā and Sarasvatī Rivers. A Māgha-melā and a Kumbha-melā are celebrated here. Every year many thousands of pilgrims come to bathe in the holy waters. It was here that Lord Caitanya instructed Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī for ten days.

prāyaścitta — atonement for sinful acts.

prayojana — The ultimate goal of life: to develop love of God.

prayojana — the ultimate goal of life, to develop love of God.

prema — Pure ecstatic love of God.

prema — real love of God, the highest perfectional stage of life.

 prema-bhajana — Personal worship of the Supreme Lord in ecstatic love.

prema-bhakti — Spontaneous devotional service to the Supreme Lord in ecstatic love.

prema-bhakti — pure love of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the highest perfectional stage in the progressive development of pure devotional service.

prema-rasa — The transcendental taste of pure love of God.

prema-saṅkīrtana — congregational chanting in love of Godhead.

prema-vaicittya — an abundance of love that brings about grief from fear of separation although the lover is present.

prema-vataḥ — one who has great love for the spiritual master.

premānanda — The ecstasy of pure love of God.

Pretsila Hill — a hill about 540 feet high, located five miles northwest of Gayā in the state of Bihar. Pilgrims perform the śraddha ceremony there. A long flight of steps which leads to the summit and temple was constructed in 1774 by Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda's ancestor Madan Mohan Dutt.

preyas — activity which is immediately beneficial but not ultimately auspicious.

priyatama — dearmost.

Priyavrata — The eldest son of the first Manu, Svāyambhuva. He refused his father’s order that he marry and rule the earth, but Lord Brahmā convinced him to change his mind. Priyavrata later gave charge of the dvīpas of Bhū-maṇḍala to seven of his sons, resumed his solitary practice of meditation, and at the end achieved liberation.

Priyavrata — the son of Svāyambhuva Manu and brother of Uttānapāda. He once ruled the universe.

proṣita-bhaṛtkā — a woman whose husband has left home and gone to a foreign country.

Pṛṣata — the father of King Drupada.

Pṛśni — Kṛṣṇa’s mother Devakī in an earlier life, when Kṛṣṇa appeared as Pṛśnigarbha. Even earlier, she appeared as Aditi, the mother of Lord Vāmana.

Pṛśni — the name of Devakī in a previous birth.

Pṛthā — See Kuntī.

Pṛthā — Kuntī, the wife of King Pāṇḍu, mother of the Pāṇḍavas and aunt of Lord Kṛṣṇa. See also: Kunti-devi.

Pṛthu Mahārāja — an empowered incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa who demonstrated how to be an ideal ruler.

Pṛthu — An empowered incarnation of the Supreme Lord who appeared as an ideal king to bring forth the resources of the earth.

pūja — Formal worship of the Supreme Lord or some demigod or respected person.

pūjā — offering of worship.

pūjārī — A devotee who performs the direct worship and service of the Deity in a temple.

pūjārī — priest, one who offers pūjā or worships the Deity in a temple.

Pulastya (Pulaha) — one of the seven great sages who were born directly from Lord Brahmā.

puṁścalī — a harlot, or unchaste woman.

Puṇḍarīkākṣa — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He whose eyes are like the reddish lotus flower.”

puṇya-karma — pious activities, which help to liberate one from the cycle of birth and death in the material world.

Puṇya-śloka — verses that increase one’s piety; one who is glorified by such verses.

pura-pālaka — the life air.

puraka — the stage of equilibrium attained by offering the inhaled breath into the exhaled breath.

puram — town.

Purāṇas — The histories of the universe, supplements to the Vedas. There are eighteen major Purāṇas and many secondary ones. The major Purāṇas are divided into three groups of six, meant for readers in each of the three modes of material nature.

Purāṇas — the eighteen major and eighteen minor ancient Vedic literatures compiled about five thousand years ago in India by Srila Vyasadeva that are histories of this and other planets; literatures supplementary to the Vedas, discussing such topics as the creation of the universe, incarnations of the Supreme Lord and demigods, and the history of dynasties of saintly kings. The eighteen principal Purāṇas discuss ten primary subject matters: 1) the primary creation, 2) the secondary creation, 3) the planetary systems, 4) protection and maintenance by the avatāras, 5) the Manus. 6) dynasties of great kings, 7) noble character and activities of great kings, 8) dissolution of the universe and liberation of the living entity, 9) the jīva (the spirit soul), 10) the Supreme Lord.

Purañjana — The hero of an allegorical story told by Nārada to King Prācīnabarhi to teach the folly of materialistic life.

puraścaraṇa — a preliminary ritualistic performance for the fulfillment of certain desires.

puraścaryā — five preliminary devotional activities performed to qualify for initiation.

Purī — (Jagannātha Purī, Nīlācala, Nīlādri) The holy city (in Orissa, on the Bay of Bengal) where Lord Jagannātha resides.

puri (poori) — a small deep-fried flat bread made from white flour, wholewheat flour, or a mixture of both.

puri — A deep-fried, puffed bread.

Pūrṇa — the complete whole, Lord Kṛṣṇa.

pūrṇam — complete.

pūrṇimā — The full moon day.

Purnima — the day of the full moon.

Purocana — a minister of King Duryodhana. He died in the fire of the house of lac in Vāraṇāvata.

pūrtam — performance of sacrifice.

Pūru — the youngest son of King Yayāti, who agreed to exchange his youth for his father’s old age.

Purūravā — a king who was captivated by the celestial woman Urvaśī.

Puruṣa — The Supreme Lord in a Viṣṇu expansion for the creation of the material world; the enjoyer, or male, referring either to the living entity or the Supreme Lord.

puruṣa — the enjoyer, or male; the living entity or the Supreme 1ord; Viṣṇu, the incarnation of the Lord for material creation; the male or controlling principle.

Puruṣa-adhama — the Personality of Godhead, under whom all other persons remain.

Puruṣa-avatāras — The three incarnations of the Supreme Lord who create and maintain the material universes: Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva.

Puruṣa-avatāras — the primary expansions of Lord Viṣṇu who effect the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material universes.

Puruṣa-avatāras — the primary expansions of Lord Viṣṇu who effect the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material universes.

Puruṣa-sūkta — A famous hymn of the Ṛg Veda, tenth maṇḍala. It describes the creation of the various forms of life and the first Vedic sacrifice, all from the body of Lord Garbhodaka-śāyī.

Puruṣa-sūkta — a sacred hymn glorifying the Supersoul of the universe.

puruṣārtha — The four standard goals of human life: dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), kāma (sense gratification), and mokṣa (liberation).

puruṣārtha — the goal of life.

Puruṣottama — See Purī.

Puruṣottama — Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is the Supreme Person, meaning “the most exalted person.”

pūrva-rāga — Attachment before first meeting.

pūrva-rāga — the ecstasy of lovers before their meeting.

pūrva-vidhi — the injunction in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam against praising characteristics or activities of others.

Purvāṣādhā — one of the twenty-seven asterisms in Vedic astrology.

pushpanna rice — Lit., “flower-rice.” A Bengali rice pilaf, featured on special-occasion menus, containing saffron, nuts, and rice.

Puṣkara — a lake in western India dear to Lord Brahmā. At this place of pilgrimage is the only authorized temple of Lord Brahmā the world.

Puṣpa-añjali — the ceremony of offering flowers to the Lord.

puṣpa-samādhi — A memorial in which the flowers worn by the spiritual master at his passing are kept.

Puṣpadanta — a name for the Supreme Lord meaning “He whose teeth are as white as jasmine flowers.” Also, a devotee of Lord Śiva renowned for his poetic skill.

Pūtanā — An infanticidal witch who entered Vraja disguised as a beautiful woman and offered the child Kṛṣṇa her poisoned breast milk, which He sucked out along with her life. Thus killed by Kṛṣṇa, Pūtanāwas elevated to Kṛṣṇa’s eternal service in the mood of a mother.

Pūtanā — a witch who was sent by Kaṁsa to appear in the form of a beautiful woman to kill baby Kṛṣṇa but who was killed by Him and granted liberation.

Pūtanā-mocana — Kṛṣṇa, “the deliverer of Pūtanā.”

putra — consciousness.




Rādhā — (-rāṇī, Rādhikā) Kṛṣṇa’s original pleasure potency, from whom all His internal energies expand. She is His eternal consort in Vṛndāvana and the most dedicated and beloved of His devotees.

Rādhā — the wife of Adhiratha, and foster mother of Karṇa.

rādhā-bhāva-mūrti — the mood of Rādhārāṇī.

 Rādhā-Dāmodara party — A large group of ISKCON preachers who traveled throughout the United States during the 1970s, named for the presiding deities who traveled with them.

Rādhā-Dāmodara — The presiding deities of ISKCON’s Gita-nagari farm in Pennsylvania, U. S. A.

Rādhā-Gopīvallabha — The presiding deities of the ISKCON temple in Boston, Massachusetts.

Rādha-Govinda-Mādhava — The presiding deities of ISKCON’s New Mayapur community in France.

Rādhā-kuṇḍa — the bathing place of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, a sacred pond near Govardhana Hill in Vraja that was created by Rādhārāṇī and her gopī companions. It is supreme among all the holy places in Vraja and the most exalted holy place for all Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas. The eight major Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava temples of Vṛndāvana also exist at Rādhā-kuṇḍa, as well as the bhajana-kutīras of Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. This is the site of the most intimate loving affairs of Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, and the waters of Rādhā-kuṇḍa are considered non-different from Rādhārāṇī and productive of love of Godhead.

Radhadesha — An ISKCON center in Belgium.

Rādhārāṇī — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s most intimate consort, who the personification of the internal, pleasure potency of Lord Kṛṣṇa. She appeared in this world as the daughter of King Vṛsabhānu and Kirti-devī and is the Queen of Vṛndāvana. The most favorite consort of Kṛṣṇa in Vrindavana, situated on Lord Kṛṣṇa's left on altars and pictures.

Rādhāṣṭamī — The festival celebrating Rādhārāṇī’s birth.

Rādhāṣtamī — the appearance anniversary of Śrimatī Rādhārāni.

Rādhikā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

rāga — Attachment; traditional Indian melodies.

rāga — attachment in ecstatic love of God.

rāga-bhakti — devotional service in transcendental rapture.

rāga-mārga — the path of devotional service in spontaneous love of Godhead.

rāgānuga-bhakti — The stage of sādhana-bhakti in which one’s practice of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa becomes spontaneous and follows in the mood of one of Kṛṣṇa’s eternal associates in Vraja.

rāgānuga-bhakti — devotional service following the spontaneous loving service of the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana.

rāgātmikā — The spontaneous devotional mood of the inhabitants of Vṛndavana, according to their loving attachment.

rāgātmika-bhakti — spontaneous devotional service of the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana according to their transcendental attachment.

Rāghava — Lord Rāmacandra, who appeared in the Raghu dynasty, the dynasty of the sun.

Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī — One of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana.

Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī — one of the Six Gosvamis of Vṛndāvana. He appeared in 1506 as the son of Tapana Miśra. He first met Lord Caitanya in Benares when the Lord stayed at his father's home for two months. He rendered direct service to the Lord and received His mercy. After the demise of his parents, he went to Purī and associated with the Lord, cooking for Him and taking His remnants. He was especially well-known for his sweetly singing the Bhāgavatam to different tunes, his super-excellent cooking and his never hearing, or speaking about, either worldly topics or criticism of Vaiṣṇavas. On the order of the Lord, he proceeded to Vṛndāvana and associated there with the other Gosvāmīs. He did not write books. His disciples assisted with the construction of the Govindaji Temple for Rūpa Gosvāmī's Deity. He disappeared in 1580 at the age of seventy-four.

Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī — One of the six Gosvāmīs of Vrindavana.

Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī — one of the Six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana. He appeared in 1495. He was the son of the fabulously wealthy Govardhana Majumdara, the younger brother of the then Zamindar Hiraṇya Majumdara in the village of Krishnapura in West Bengal. His forefathers were Vaiṣṇavas, and when he was a boy he got the association and blessings of Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura. He was mad with the desire to join Lord Caitanya in Jagannātha Purī, but every time he ran away from home his parents would have him captured and brought back. Finally, he was successful. He received the mercy of Lord Caitanya and served for many years as the assistant of Svarūpa Dāmodara. He was thus known as the Raghu of Svarūpa. Later, he was sent to Vṛndāvana and lived in Rādhā-kuṇḍa, performing severe austerities. In his later years he subsisted on just a few drops of buttermilk each day. He wrote important texts on devotion, his only concern being the chanting of the Holy Name. He ascended in 1571 at the age of 76.

Raghunātha — (Raghupati, Rāghavendra) Lord Rāmacandra, “the Lord of the Raghus.”

Raghus — The dynasty of the Kosala kingdom, descended from King Raghu, the great-great-grandfather of Lord Rāmacandra.

Rahūgaṇa Mahārāja — the king who received spiritual instruction from Jaḍa Bharata.

railhead — town or station at the end of the railway line; ending point.

raita — fruits or semicooked vegetables in lightly seasoned yogurt.

Raivata Manu — A son of Priyavrata who became the fifth Manu, after his brother Tāmasa.

Raivata — A mountain in Gujarat currently known as Girnar. It is near Junagarh.

Raivataka — a mountain near Dvārakā.

raja — rule or sovereignty. Used to describe the British rule; king or prince.

rāja-pāla — the governor of the state.

rāja-vidyā — Lit., “the king of knowledge.” The topmost knowledge, i. e., to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead; Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Rāja-yoga — Understanding of the form of the absolute within many forms, realized through the practice of the eightfold yoga system (ashtanga-yoga).

rāja-yoga — Patañjali’s process of imagining a form of the Absolute Truth within many forms.

rajaguṇa — the mode of passion of material nature.

rājarṣi — a great saintly king.

Rajas — Passion.

rajas — the material mode of passion.

rājasa-ahaṅkāra — egotism in passion.

rājasūya-yajña — an elaborate sacrifice that establishes who is the emperor of the world. It was performed by Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira before the Battle of Kurukṣetra and attended by Lord Kṛṣṇa. (Sabhā Parva in Mahābhārata)

rajo-guṇa — the material mode of passion.

rajo-guṇa — Among the three modes of material nature, the mode of passion. It impels ambition and activity.

rākṣasa — a class of asura or ungodly people. The Rākṣasa are always opposed to God’s will. Generally, they are man-eaters and have grotesque forms.

rākṣasa-gaṇa — man-eating demons.

rākṣasas — (Rakṣas) Man-eating demons who dwell in forests.

rākshasī — A female Rākṣasa.

rakta — red in the Treta-yuga.

Rāma — (-candra) An incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a perfect righteous king, born as the son of Daśaratha and Kauśalyā. Rāma is also a name of Lord Kṛṣṇa, meaning “the source of all pleasure,” and a name of Lord Balarāma and Lord Paraśurāma. As part of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, refers to the highest eternal pleasure of Lord Kṛṣṇa; may also refer to Lord Balarāma or Lord Rāmacandra.

Ramā — Lakṣmī, the “giver of pleasure” to Lord Nārāyaṇa.

Rāma — name of the Absolute Truth as the source of unlimited pleasure for transcendentalists; incarnation of the Supreme Lord, Lord Rāmacandra as a perfect, righteous king, who appeared in Ayodhya in the Tretā-yuga.

Ramā — Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune and eternal consort of the Supreme Lord, Nārāyaṇa.

Rāma-kathā — Sacred narrations of the glories of Lord Rāmacandra.

Rāma-navamī — Lord Rāmacandra’s appearance day.

Rāma-navamī — the appearance anniversary of Lord Rāmacandra.

Rāma-rājya — a perfect, Vedic kingdom following the example of Lord Rāmacandra — the incarnation of the Supreme Lord appearing as the perfect king.

Rāmacandra — the eighteenth incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the killer of the tenheaded demon king, Rāvaṇa. Rāma was exiled to the forest on the order of His father, Mahārāja Daśaratha. His wife Sītā was kidnapped by Rāvaṇa, but by employing a huge army of monkeys, who were the powerful and intelligent offspring of demigods, He regained his wife in battle, and eventually His ancestral kingdom too. This great epic is recounted in Vālmīki's Rāmāyaṇa.

Rāmānanda Rāya — an intimate associate of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His later pastimes.

Rāmanuja — (-ācārya) The founding ācārya of one of the four Vaiṣṇava sampradāyas in Kali-yuga.

Rāmānujācārya — a great eleventh-century Vaiṣṇava spiritual master of the Śrī-sampradāya.

Rāmapriya — The spiritual planet created in the material world by Lord Vaikuntha, the fifth manvantara-avatāra, to rival the Svargaloka of Indra.

Rāmāyaṇa — The epic history of Lord Rāmacandra. The original version was written by the sage Vālmīki, a contemporary of Lord Rāma.

Rāmāyaṇa — the original epic history about Lord Rāmacandra and Sītā, written by Vālmīki Muni.

Ranaghat — a town in the West Bengal district of Nadia just south of Navadvīpa on the railway to Calcutta. Ranaghat is the government headquarters of the Ranaghat subdivision of the Nadia district. It covers an area of about two-and-a-half square miles. Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda's family lived here at different times.

Ranga-bhumi — This is where the wrestling match took place between Krsna, Balaram and the professional wrestlers, Canura and Mustika.

Raṅganātha — The reclining deity of Viṣṇu residing near Tiruchchirapalli in Tamil Nadu. In the neighborhood of this temple Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed with Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa and his family for four months.

Raṅganātha — Deity of Lord Viṣṇu worshipped in Śrī Raṅgam.

Rantideva — A pious king who fasted forty-eight days and was then tested by demigods headed by Brahmā and Śiva. The demigods came in the guise of a brāhmaṇa, then a śūdra, and finally a caṇḍāla, each of whom begged portions of the food the king was to use to break his fast, finally leaving him without even water to drink. Because he tolerated all this, he received the blessings of the Supreme Lord.

Rāsa Dance — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s pleasure dance with the cowherd maidens of Vṛndāvana, Vrajabhūmi. It is a pure exchange of spiritual love between the Lord and His most advanced, confidential servitors.

rāsa — (-līlā) Kṛṣṇa’s divine dance with the gopīs, the grand celebration of their conjugal love.

rasa — “Transcendental taste.” The five primary spiritual rasas are moods in relationship with the Supreme Lord: reverence, servitude, friendship, parental affection, and conjugal love. Rasa also indicates the boundless pleasure enjoyed in such reciprocations.

rasa — relationship between the Lord and the living entities; mellow, or the sweet taste of a relationship, especially between the Lord and the living entities. They are of five principal varieties — neutral relationship (santa-rasa), relationship as servant (dāsya-rasa), as friend (sakhya-rasa), parent (vātsalya-rasa) and conjugal lover (mādhurya-rasa).

Rāsa-līlā — the group dancing of Kṛṣṇa and His cowherd girlfriends in His Vṛndāvana pastimes.

rasa-tattva — The truth of transcendental mellows.

Rasa-yātrā — festival of the rasa dancing of Kṛṣṇa.

rasābhāsa — Incompatible mixing of rasas.

rasābhāsa — incompatible overlapping of transcendental mellows.

rāsādi-vilāsī — the enjoyer of the rāsa dance and other pastimes.

rasam powder — a South Indian spice blend used to flavour the famous rasam, a chili-hot soup dish made from toovar (arhar) dal lentils. Ingredients vary. The home-made rasam powder recipe contains mustard seeds, coriander seeds, dried hot red chilies, black peppercorns, fenugreek seeds, and cumin seeds. Rasam powder can be purchased ready-mixed in packets or tins from Indian grocery shops.

Rasātala — the lowest planet in the lowest planetary system (Pātāla) ins

rasayana — An Ayurvedic tonic.

rasgulla — A Bengali sweet consisting of balls of fresh curd cooked and soaked in a sugar syrup.

rasika — A pure devotee competent to relish the tastes of loving reciprocation with the Supreme Lord.

Ratha — temple cart or chariot, used during religious festival to carry the Deities.

Ratha-yātrā — The yearly festival in Purī during which Lord Jagannātha, His brother Lord Baladeva, and Their sister Subhadrā move in procession, each on their own cart, from their temple to the Gundicātemple, which represents Vṛndavana. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu would observe this Gundicā-yātrāwith great festivity in the company of His devotees.

Ratha-yātrā — the festival celebrating Kṛṣṇa’s return to Vṛndāvana; The journey of the chariots, a traditional Vaiṣṇava festival held every year at Jagannātha Purī in Orissa. In Purī the devotees place the immense Deity forms of Jagannātha, Baladeva and Lady Subhadrā on three towering, huge gaily decorated canopied chariots, each having sixteen wheels. Thousands of people pull these cars to the Guṇḍicā temple, where Lord Jagannātha abides for seven days, after which there is a return Ratha-yātrā to the Jagannātha Temple. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His associates gathered every year to observe this celebration with a massive festival of saṅkīrtana. This great celebration of Ratha-yātrā is now being held all over the world by the arrangement of Śrīla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.

rati — Attachment.

rati — a strong attraction to God that precedes bhāva (mature ecstasy) and prema (mature love of God).

raty-ābhāsa — a preliminary glimpse of attachment.

raudra-rasa — one of the indirect relationships, anger.

Rāvaṇa — The demonic king of Laṅka who conquered the universe and abducted the wife of the Supreme Lord Rāma, who therefore invaded his kingdom and killed him.

Rāvaṇa — a powerful ten-headed demon king of Laṅkā who wanted to build a staircase to heaven but was killed by Kṛṣṇa in His incarnation as Lord Rāmacandra. The pastime is described in the epic poem Rāmāyaṇa, by the sage Vālmīki.

recaka — the state of equilibrium attained by offering the exhaled breath into the inhaled breath.

Ṛg Veda — One of the four Vedas, the original revealed scriptures. It records hymns that glorify the demigods and forces of nature who embody the energies of the Supreme Lord.

Ṛg Veda — one of the four Vedas, the original scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself.

rickshaw — two or three wheeled passenger vehicle.

ricotta — crumbly, soft white cheese made from the whey of cow's milk and popular in Italian cuisine. It is frequently used in cooking both sweet and savoury dishes in Italy, for, like curd cheese or cottage cheese, its mild, somewhat bland flavour combines well with other ingredients. It is available at selected supermarkets or specialty grocers.

rishi — a sage.

Ṛk-saṁhitā — the mantra text of the Ṛg Veda.

Ṛk-sūktas — The hymns of the Ṛg Veda, numbering 1,024.

Rohiṇī — The wife of Vasudeva who was the mother of Kṛṣṇa’s principal expansion, Balarāma.

Rohiṇī — the wife of Vasudeva, and the mother of Lord Balarāma.

Romaharṣaṇa — After dividing the original Veda into four, Vyāsadeva entrusted this disciple with the Purāṇas and epic histories. Later, in an assembly of sages at Naimiṣāraṇya, when Romahaṣaṇa failed to stand up from his speaker’s seat to honor Lord Balarāma, Lord Balarāma killed him and installed Romaharṣaṇa’s son Ugraśravā (Sūta Gosvāmī) in his place.

Romaharṣaṇa — the father of Sūta Gosvāmī. He was killed by Lord Balarāma for his offenses.

rose water — the diluted essence of rose petals, particularly from the highly scented species Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia. It is widely used throughout the Middle East as a flavouring agent. In India it is especially used in the refreshing, icy-cold, sweet yogurt-based beverage known as lassi, in Milk Balls in Rose Syrup (gulab jamun), and in rasgoolas. It is available at Middle Eastern and Indian grocers.

rosemary — the small, narrow, aromatic leaves of the evergreen shrub Rosmarinus officinalis. This fragrant seasoning herb with its clean, woody odour reminiscent of pine is popular in some European cuisines. Its strong, camphorlike taste is not always appreciated however, and it is easily over-used. Because whole leaves of dried rosemary are not pleasant to find in a dish, I find it useful to grind them to a powder before using. If fresh rosemary is available, whole sprigs can be added to a dish and removed whole at the completion of the cooking.

Ṛṣabha — (-deva) An empowered incarnation of the Supreme Lord who set the standard of an ideal king, gave valuable instructions to his one hundred sons, and then became an exemplar of complete renunciation.

Ṛṣabhadeva — an incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a devotee king who, after instructing his sons in spiritual life, renounced His kingdom for a life of austerity.

ṛṣi — A Vedic sage. The first ṛṣis were the “seers” of the Vedic hymns, who perceived the eternal mantras in their meditation and passed them on to human society.

ṛṣi — a synonym for a sage who performs austerities.

ṛṭvik — Lit., “priest.” Name given to Śrīla Prabhupāda’s proposal, for the sake of harmony among his disciples,   that he (Śrīla Prabhupāda) be the only initiating guru within ISKCON. In a letter dated July 9, 1977, addressed to all GBC and temple presidents, he appointed 11 of his disciples to “henceforward” act as ṛṭviks (officiating priests) to initiate on his behalf.

ṛtvik — one who acts on behalf of his preceptor.

ruci — Lit., “taste.” A stage in the practice of Kṛṣṇa consciousness in which one develops a natural attraction or “taste” for the activities of devotional service.

rūḍha — advanced symptom of conjugal mellow found among the queens of Dvārakā; included in mahābhāva.

rūḍha-bhāva — the love of the gopīs.

 Rudra — Lord Śiva.

Rudrasee: Śiva

 Rudra-sampradāya — One of the four authorized Vaiṣṇava schools. It was founded originally by Lord Śiva and reestablished in the Kali-yuga by Śrī Viṣṇu Svāmī.

Rudras — Eleven expansions of Lord Śiva who control the forces of destruction in the material world.

Rudras — the expansions of Lord Śiva who rule over the material mode of ignorance.

Rukmaratha — the son of Śalya, the King of Madras. He was killed by Śveta, the son of Drupada, during the Kurukṣetra war.

Rukmi — A son of King Bhīṣmaka of Vidarbha and brother of Rukmiṇī, Kṛṣṇa’s first wife.

Rukmī — the son of King Bhīṣmaka, the King of Vidarbha, and the brother of Rukmiṇī, the first wife of Lord Kṛṣṇa. His hatred for Lord Kṛṣṇa eventually got him killed by Lord Baladeva during a chess game.

Rukmiṇī — (-devī) Kṛṣṇa’s first wife, the mother of Pradyumna, nine other illustrious sons, and one daughter. She is Kṛṣṇa’s principal queen in Dvārakā.

Rukmiṇī — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s principal queen in Dvārakā; the chief of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s wives.

Rukmiṇī-Dvārakādhīśa — the transcendental couple manifested as Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Dvārakā, and His queen Rukmiṇī.

Rukmini-Dvarakādhisa — the transcendental couple manifested as Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Dvārakā, and His queen Rukminī; name of the Deities of ISKCON Los Angeles.

Rūpa Gosvāmī — One of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, principal followers of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Śrīla Rūpa is the prime authority on the science of rasa, loving exchanges with God, which he explained in his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu and Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi. He was also an eminent playwright and poet. Most Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas consider themselves rūpānugas, followers of Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Rūpa Gosvāmī — chief of the six great spiritual master Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana who were authorized by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu to establish and distribute the philosophy of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. He extensively researched the scriptures and established the philosophy taught by Lord Caitanya on an unshakable foundation. Thus Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas are known as Rūpānugas, followers of Rūpa Gosvāmī. He is also known as the rasācārya, or the teacher of devotional mellows, as exemplified by his book, Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu. It is the duty and the aspiration of every Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava to become his servant and follow his path.

Rūpa-mañjarī — Rūpa Gosvāmī’s eternal form as a gopī-mañjarī.

rūpānuga — A follower of Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Rūpānuga — one who follows in the footsteps of Rūpa Gosvāmī.

rupee — main unit of currency used in India.




sa-guṇa — “With qualities.” In reference to the Supreme Lord, the term signifies that He has form and personality.

śabda — Sound.

Śabda — transcendental sound.

śabda-brahma — Transcendental sound, considered by Vedic philosophy to be self-evident proof of knowledge.

śabda-brahma — transcendental sound vibration; the injunctions of the Vedas and Upaniṣads.

śabda-pramāṇa — the evidence of transcendental sound, especially of the Vedas.

śabda-tanmātra — the material element of sound vibration.

sabji — Vegetables.

sabji — vegetable or vegetable dish.

sac-cid-ānanda — “Eternal existence, consciousness, and bliss,” the constitutional nature of the Supreme Lord and the finite living beings. The Supreme Lord’s sac-cid-ānanda nature is always manifest, but that of the jīvas is covered by material illusion when they rebel against the Lord.

sac-cid-ānanda — the natural condition of spiritual life: eternal, full of knowledge and bliss.

Sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha — [Bs. 5.1] — the Lord’s transcendental form, which is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss; the eternal transcendental form of the living entity.

Śacī — (-devī) The mother of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and wife of Jagannātha Miśra of Navadvīpa.

Śacī-devī — the mother of Śri Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Śacī-nandana — Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “the darling son of Śacī.”

Śacīpatisee: Indra

sacred thread — a thread worn by persons initiated into the chanting of the Gāyatrī mantra.

Ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-pūrṇa — the Supreme Lord who is complete with six opulences.

Ṣaḍ-bhūja — the six-armed form of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

sad-guru — A bona fide spiritual master.

Sadāśivasee: Śiva

sādhaka — A practitioner of devotional service or some other authorized spiritual discipline.

sādhaka — a practitioner of sādhana-bhakti; one who is nearing the perfection of Brahman realization; one who is a suitable candidate for liberation.

sādhana — Practices for achieving pure devotional service; more generally, the means for achieving any goal.

sādhana — the beginning phase of devotional service, consisting of regulated practice.

sādhana-bhakti — Pure devotional service in practice, which purifies the heart and brings one toward spontaneous loving service to the Supreme Lord.

sādhana-bhakti — following the rules and regulations of devotional service to develop natural love for Kṛṣṇa.

sādhana-siddha — A devotee of the Supreme Lord who has become perfect by practicing sādhana-bhakti.

sādhana-siddha — one who has attained perfection by executing the rules and regulations of devotional service.

sādhana-siddhi — The achievement of perfection by the practice of regulated devotional service.

sādhu — A saintly person.

sādhu — a saint or Krishna conscious devotee, or Vaiṣṇava. A wandering holy man.

sādhu-nindā — the offense of criticizing a Vaiṣṇava.

sādhu-saṅga — The association of saintly persons.

sadhu-saṅga — the association of saintly persons.

sādhu-varya — the best of gentlemen.

Sādhyas — demigods inhabiting the heavenly planets.

safflour oil — the oil extracted from the seed of the tall, thistle-like safflower plant (Carthamus tinctoriusi). The seeds are husked and pressed and the oil extracted by hydraulic or chemical means. Safflower oil is low in saturated fatty acids, has a mild flavour, has a high smoking point, and is suitable as a salad oil or a deep-frying oil.

saffron — the slender dried stigmas of the flowers of Crocus sativus, grown commercially in Spain, Kashmir, and China. When the plants bloom, the brilliant stigmas (the female organs of the plants are hand-picked daily, just as the plants open in the early morning. About 210,000 dried stigmas, picked from about 70,000 flowers yield one pound of saffron. Understandably, cost of saffron production is very high, and saffron is the world's most expensive spice. After picking, the saffron is dried in sieves over low heat, then stored immediately. The final product is a compressed, highly aromatic matted mass of narrow, thread-like, dark-orange to reddish-brown strands about 2.5 cm (1-inch) long. Saffron has a pleasantly spicy, pungent, slightly bitter honey-like taste with such a potent colouring power that one part of its colouring component, known as crocin, is capable of colouring up to 150,000 parts of water unmistakably yellow. Saffron has enjoyed immense popularity throughout the world for centuries. By the sixteenth century, for instance, saffron was being extensively cultivated in England as a culinary spice. Its popularity today is limited to mainly Indian, French, Middle Eastern, and Spanish cuisines. The saffron strands should be soaked and ground or slightly dry-roasted and powdered before using. A big pinch of saffron is sufficient to colour a whole dish, but be sure to purchase the real thing--saffron is often adulterated. And remember, there is no such thing as cheap saffron! Saffron is available at Indian grocers, gourmet stores, and large Chinese medical centres, where it is known  as hoong fa (ask for the more expensive variety).

sagar — lake.

sagarbha-yogī — a yogī who worships the Supersoul in the Viṣṇu form.

Saguṇa — “possessing attributes or qualities.” In reference to the Supreme Lord, the term signifies that He has spiritual, transcendental qualities.

Sahadeva — One of the twin sons of Mādrī, who were the youngest of the five Pāṇḍavas. At Yudhiṣṭhira’s Rājasūya sacrifice, Sahadeva had the honor of proposing that Kṛṣṇa be given the first worship.

Sahadeva — Nakula's twin, and the fifth of the sons of Pāṇḍu, and younger brother of Arjuna. He was born of the union of the Aśvinī-kumāra demigods and Kuntī. He was reputed for knowledge of scriptures, and he was exceptionally handsome.

Sahadeva — the son of Jarāsandha. He took the side of the Pāṇḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war and was killed by Droṇa.

sahajiyā — A class of pseudo devotees who take the conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs cheaply and who do not follow the proper regulations of vaidhi-bhakti.

sahajiyās — a class of so-called devotees who, considering God cheap, ignore the scriptural injunctions and try to imitate the Lord’s pastimes; an offensive, immature devotee who does not follow proper devotional regulations.

Sahasra-giti — thousand prayers composed by Nāmmālvāra.

Sahasra-śīrṣā — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who has a thousand heads;” See also: Ananta

Sahasra-vadana — the thousand-mouthed snake incarnation, called Śeṣa Nāga.

sahib — “Lord”; title given to any gentlemen and usually to Europeans. This is a compliment.

Śaibyā — one of the great archers on the side of the Pāṇḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war; one of the four horses that drove Lord Kṛṣṇa’s chariot; one of the wives of Lord Kṛṣṇa, after the Lord’s disappearance she entered fire and attained the spiritual world.

sainika — the condition of threefold miseries.

Sairandhrī — a name used by Draupadī during the Pāṇḍavas last year of exile in the kingdom of Virāṭa.

Śaivism — the philosophy of the Śiva-sampradaya, the disciplic succession descending from Lord Śiva.

Śaivite — A devotee of Lord Śiva.

Śaivite — A worshiper of Lord Śiva as the Supreme Lord.

Śaivite — devotee of Lord Śiva; one who worships Śiva as the Supreme Lord.

sajātīya — a person within the intimate circle of the Lord.

sajātīyāśaya-snigdha — pleasing to people of a similar nature.

śāka — a leafy vegetable that was a favorite of Lord Caitanya's.

sakāma-bhakta — A devotee whose service attitude is mixed with material motives.

sakāma-bhakta — a devotee with material desires.

Śakaṭa — (-asura) A demon who assumed the form of a cart. When Mother Yaśodā left the infant Kṛṣṇa sleeping under the cart, Kṛṣṇa kicked the cart with His little foot and killed the demon.

sakhī — Girlfriend, refers to Śrīmati Rādhārāṇī’s intimate girlfriends, who assist Her in Her service to Kṛṣṇa.

Sakhīgopīs who are close associates of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s and who expand the conjugal love of Kṛṣṇa and His enjoyment among the gopīs.

sakhya — the devotional process of maintaining friendship with Kṛṣṇa.

sakhya-prema — love of God in friendship.

sakhya-rasa — a relationship with the Supreme Lord in devotional friendship.

sakhya-ratisee: Sakhya-rasa above.

Sākṣi-gopāla — the Deity of Kṛṣṇa who acted as a witness to the promise of an elder brāhmaṇa to a younger one.

śakti — Potency.

śakti-tattva — persons who are plenary expansions of the Lord’s internal potency; the various energies of the Lord.

śakty-āveśa avatāra — An empowered incarnation, usually a finite jīva deputized to exemplify a particular opulence of the Supreme Lord.

śaktyāveśa-avatāra — an empowered living entity who serves as an incarnation of the Lord; empowered by the Supreme Lord with one or more of the Lord’s opulences.

śaktyāveśa-jīvassee: Śaktyāveśa-avatāra above.

Śakuni — Duryodhana’s uncle who gambled with the Pāṇḍavas on Duryodhana’s behalf, forcing the Pāṇḍavas into exile.

Śakuni — the evil brother of Gāndhārī and notorious friend of Duryodhana. He master-minded the great gambling match that sent the Pāṇḍavas into exile for 13 years. In the great Kurukṣetra war he was killed by Sahadeva.

Śala — he was one of the sons of Somadatta, a Kuru King. His brothers were Bhūri and Bhūriśravas. He was killed by Sātyaki during the Kurukṣetra war.

śāla — a hardwood tree found in northern India.

Śālagrāma-śilā — A deity of Lord Nārāyaṇa in the form of a small black stone marked with cakras and other symbols. These śilās, obtained only from one location on the river Gandaki and typically worshiped by brāhmaṇas in their homes, can each be recognized by unique markings as a specific incarnation of the Lord.

Śālagrāma-śilā — the worshipable Deity of the Lord Nārāyaṇa in the form of a round stone. It is described in detail in the final canto of the Padma Purāṇa.

sālokya — the liberation of residing on the same planet as the Supreme Lord.

Sālokya-mukti — liberation of residing on the same planet as the Lord.

Śālva — A demon who used a flying city to attack Dvārakā and was killed by Kṛṣṇa.

Śālva — a demon who desired Ambā for his wife. He was defeated by Bhīṣma in his attempt to win Ambā. He attacked Dvārakā with an airship made by the demon Maya. He was killed by Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Śalya — the King of Madras. His sister was Mādrī who was married to Pāṇḍu. He wanted to join the side of the Pāṇḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war, but was tricked by Duryodhana into offering him his services. He was killed by Yudhiṣṭhira during the Kurukṣetra war.

Sāma Veda — One of the four Vedas, the original revealed scriptures. It contains sacred musical compositions based mostly on the hymns of the Ṛg Veda and employed in the more elaborate Vedic sacrifices, the soma-yajñas.

Sāma Veda — one of the four original Vedas. It consists of musical settings of the sacrificial hymns. The Sāma Veda is rich with beautiful songs played by the various demigods. One of these songs is the Bṛhat-sāma, which has an exquisite melody and is sung at midnight.

sama — control of the mind.

sama-darśī — seeing with equal vision. Therefore, one who has knowledge of the soul and how the soul transmigrates from one body to another does not pay attention to the body, which is nothing but a covering dress. Paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ [Bg. 5.18]. Such a person sees the soul, which is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Therefore he is a sama-darśi, a learned person.

samādhi — 1. Fully matured meditation, the last of the eight steps of the yoga system taught by Patañjali. A perfected devotee of the Supreme Lord also achieves the same samādhi. 2. The tomb of a pure devotee of the Lord.

samādhi — total absorption and trance of the mind and senses in consciousness of the Supreme Godhead and service to Him. The word samādhi also refers to the tomb where a great soul's body is laid after his departure from this world.

samana-vayu — the internal bodily air which adjusts equilibrium. It is one of the five bodily airs controlled by the breathing exercises of the aṣtanga-yoga system.

samatā — stage when one is fully attached to Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet.

Sāmba — one of the heroic sons of Lord Kṛṣṇa born of Jāmbavatī.

Sāmba — One of Kṛṣṇa’s favorite sons, the first son of Jāmbavatī.

sambal oelek — a hot condiment made from ground, fresh, hot red chilies, popular in Malay and Indonesian cuisine. It is often added to a dish for an extra-hot chili dimension, such as in Malaysian Hot Noodles with Tofu (Mie Goreng). Available at Asian grocery stores. To make 2 teaspoons (10 ml) of your own Sambal Oelek, pound together 2 hot red chillies and 1/2 teaspoon (2 ml) salt.

sambandha — Knowledge of one’s original relationship with Kṛṣṇa.

sambandha-jñāna — knowledge of one’s original relationship with the Lord.

sambar powder — a zesty South Indian spice combination always added to the famous hot-and-sour dal dish called Sambar. Varieties of sambar powder are available, each with different combinations of ingredients. Varieties might contain ground, roasted red chilies, dried curry leaves, roasted and ground coriander, cumin mustard and fenugreek seeds, black peppercorns, turmeric, sesame seeds, and toasted and finely powdered chana dal, toovar dal, and urad dal. Sambar powder (also called sambar masala) is available at Indian grocery stores.

Śambara — The demonic son of Kaśyapa and Danu who kidnapped Pradyumna, Kṛṣṇa’s first son, when the boy was ten days old. Pradyumna later killed him.

sambhoga — the ecstasy of the meeting and embracing of lovers.

sambhrama-dāsya — one of the indirect relationships, respect.

Śambhu-tattva — the principle of Lord Śiva.

Saṁhitas — The collections of mantras that comprise the original Vedas.

Saṁhitās — supplementary Vedic literatures expressing the conclusions of particular self-realized authorities.

sāmīpya — the liberation of becoming a personal associate of the Supreme Lord.

sāmīpya-mukti — liberation of living as a personal associate of the Lord.

samosa — A savory, stuffed, deep-fried pastry.

samosa — a deep-fried turnover, stuffed with cooked fruits or spiced vegetables.

sampradāya — A school of philosophy or religion. According to the Padma Purāṇa, there are four authorized Vaiṣṇava sampradāyas, founded by Lord Brahmā, the goddess Lakṣmī, Lord Śiva, and the four Kumāra sages. In Kali-yuga these schools have been reestablished by the ācaryas Madhva, Rāmānuja, Viṣṇu Svāmī, and Nimbarka. The sampradāya of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is officially connected with the Madhva line, but incorporates teachings of all four sampradāyas.

sampradāya — a disciplic succession of spiritual masters, along with the followers in that tradition, through which spiritual knowledge is transmitted.

sampradāya-ācāryas — founders of the four Vaiṣṇava schools; they include Śrī Rāmānujācārya, Madhvācārya, Viṣṇusvāmī and Nimbārka.

samprekṣya nāsikāgram — keeping one’s eyes half-open in the practice of yoga.

saṁsāra — The cycle of repeated birth and death, which continues until one gives up one’s rebellion against the Supreme Lord.

saṁsāra — the cycle of repeated birth and death in the material world.

saṁskāra — one of the Vedic reformatory rituals performed one by one from the time of conception until death for purifying a human being.

saṁskāras — Vedic purificatory rites of passage.

saṁskṛta — purified.

saṁsṛti — the cycle of repeated birth and death.

Samvit-śakti — the knowledge portion of the Lord’s spiritual potency.

Sanaka — (-kumāra) The oldest of the first four sons of Lord Brahmā. Sanaka and his three brothers are great masters of yoga who teach the science of pure Kṛṣṇa consciousness. His brothers are named Sanat, Sanandana, and Sanātana.

Sanātana Gosvāmī — One of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana.

Sanātana Gosvāmī — one of the Six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana who was authorized by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu to establish and distribute the philosophy of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. He was the older brother of Rūpa Gosvāmī and was accepted by Rūpa Gosvāmī as his spiritual master. He and Rūpa Gosvāmī were both ministers in the Mohammedan court in Gauḍa, but renounced everything for the service of Lord Caitanya. The two brothers were ordered by Śrī Caitanya to write books establishing the philosophy of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavism and to excavate the holy places in Vṛndāvana.

sanātana — Eternal.

sanātana — eternal, having no beginning or end.

Sanātana-dhāma — the eternal abode, the Vaikuṇṭha planets in the spiritual sky.

sanātana-dharma — The “eternal religion” described in the Vedic śrutis and smṛtis and practiced by faithful followers for countless generations.

Sanātana-dharma — literally, the “eternal activity of the soul”, or the eternal religion of the living being–to render service to the Supreme Lord, which in this age is executed mainly by chanting the mahā-mantra. See also: Bhāgavata-dharma.

sanātana-yoga — eternal activities performed by the living entity.

sanctum sanctorum — inner sanctuary or altar room that contains the main Deity of the temple

sandeśa — a delicate sweetmeat made with curd and sugar.

sandesha — A Bengali sweet made from fresh milk curd.

Sandhinī-śakti — the existence potency of the Lord.

Sāndīpani — A sage residing in Avanti who was the teacher of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma after they moved to Mathurā. They learned from him all the sixty-four traditional arts in sixty-four days.

saṅga — Association.

saṅgam — meeting point of two or more rivers.

Sañjaya — charioteer and minister to King Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Sañjaya narrated the events of the Kurukṣetra war to Dhṛtarāṣṭra by the mercy of Vyāsa; also a former king of the Ikṣvāku dynasty.

śaṅkā — doubt, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Śaṅkara — (-ācārya) The most influential teacher of the impersonal Advaita philosophy in Kali-yuga. According to the Padma Purāṇa, he is an incarnation of Lord Śiva sent to earth by Kṛṣṇa to bewilder the atheistic with distortions of the teachings of Vedānta.

Saṅkarasee: Śiva

Śaṅkarācārya — an incarnation of Lord Śiva who appeared in South India at the end of the 7th century A.D. to re-establish the authority of the Vedic scriptures. He was a philosopher and lived about three hundred years before Rāmānuja. He did this at a time when India was under the sway of Buddhism, whose tenets deny the authority of the Vedas. He took sannyāsa at a very tender age and wrote commentaries establishing an impersonal philosophy similar to Buddhism, substituting Brahman (Spirit) for the void. He traveled all over India defeating the great scholars of the day and converting them to his doctrine of Māyāvāda, the advaita (non-dualism) interpretation of the Upaniṣads and Vedānta. He left the world at the age of 33.

Saṅkarṣaṇa — Another name of Lord Balarāma. Also, one of Lord Nārāyaṇa’s quadruple expansions in Vaikuṇṭha. Balarāma is the original Saṅkarṣaṇa, since Nārāyaṇa is Lord Balarāma’s expansion.

Saṅkarṣaṇa — one of the four original expansions of Lord Kṛṣṇa in the spiritual world; also, another name of Balarāma, given by Garga Muni.

Śaṅkha — a son of King Viraṭa. He was killed Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war; the conchshell held by Lord Viṣṇu.

Śaṅkhacūḍa — A demon killed by Kṛṣṇa for trying to kidnap Kṛṣṇa’s girlfriends.

Saṅkhoddhāra — the place where the Lord killed Sankhāsura.

Sāṅkhya — The philosophical study of reality by analysis of its elements. Sāṅkhya was originally taught in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam by Kapiladeva, an incarnation of God, but was much later misrepresented in an atheistic form by another Kapila.

sāṅkhya — analytical discrimination between spirit and matter and the path of devotional service as described by Lord Kapila, the son of Devahūti in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; analytical understanding of the body and the soul. See also: Sāṅkhya-yoga

sāṅkhya-yoga — the process of linking with the Supreme by intellectually tracing out the source of creation.

saṅkīrtana — Congregational chanting of the names and glories of Kṛṣṇa, which is the prime means for spiritual success in the current Age of Kali.

saṅkīrtana-yajña — the sacrifice prescribed for the Age of Kali, namely, congregational chanting of the name, fame and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Saṅkrāntī — the day when a Bengali month ends. Also, the passage of the sun or any other planet from one Zodiacal sign to another.

sannipāti — a convulsive disease caused by combination of kapha, pitta, vāyu.

sannyāsa — The renounced order of life.

sannyāsa — the renounced order, and fourth stage of Vedic spiritual life in the Vedic system of varṇāsrama-dharma, which is free from family relationships and in which all activities are completely dedicated to Kṛṣṇa. It is the order of ascetics who travel and constantly preach the message of Godhead for the benefit of all. The sannyāsī has no other purpose in life but to serve and please the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and he acts as the guru for the other divisions of society.

sannyāsa-daṇḍa — the staff carried by a sannyāsī.

sannyāsī — A man in the renounced order, the final stage of spiritual progress in the varṇāśrama system. Sannyāsīs take a vow of lifetime celibacy.

sannyāsī — one in the sannyāsa (renounced) order.

Sanskrit — the oldest language in the world. The Vedas, or India's holy scriptures, are written in Sanskrit.

śānta — peaceful.

śānta-bhakta — A devotee in the mood of śānta-rasa.

śānta-bhaktas — devotees in the neutral stage of devotional service.

śānta-rasa — Passive love of God; the relationship with the Supreme Lord in neutrality.

śānta-rasa — the marginal stage of devotional service, passive love of God; the relationship with the Supreme Lord in neutrality.

śānta-ratisee: Śānta-rasa above.

santansee: Coconut milk

Śantanu — the father of Bhīṣma by Gaṅgā. He gave Bhīṣma the benediction that he could die only when he wanted to. It was said that anything he touched with his two hands would become youthful.

śānti — Peace.

Śāntipur — a village in the Ranaghat subdivision of the West Bengal district of Nadia. It is famous as the home of Śrī Advaita Ācārya, the associate of Lord Caitanya and incarnation of Mahā-Visṇu. It is close to Māyāpura.

śāpa — a brāhmaṇa’s curse.

Sapta-dvīpa — the seven islands of the earth.

Sapta-suta — the seven sons, namely hearing, chanting, remembering, offering prayers, serving the lotus feet of the Lord, worshiping the Deity and becoming a servant of the Lord.

Sapta-tāla — the seven palm trees in Rāmacandra’s forest.

sāra grass — a whitish reed.

Śaradvān — the son of Gautama, and the father of Kṛpācārya.

saralatā — simplicity.

sāram — Essence.

Śaraṇāgatī — The process of surrender; a collection of songs by Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura; the name of an ISKCON farm in Ashcroft, British Columbia, Canada.

Sarasvatī — The goddess of learning. Also, one of India’s great sacred rivers. In the modern age the river is almost totally invisible, but a short stretch of it appears from the Himalaya mountains, near Vyāsadeva’s āśrama, just north of Badarika. The Sarasvatī joins underground with the Gaṅga and Yamunā at Prayāga.

Sarasvatī — goddess of learning. Wife of Lord Brahmā. She usually sits on a white swan and holds a veena (stringed instrument) in her hands.

Sarga — the first material creation by Viṣṇu.

sari — Vedic women’s dress.

śārī — A female parrot.

sārī — traditional Indian dress worn by Hindu women — six yards long as a rule; Vedic women's dress.

Śārīraka-bhāṣya — Śaṅkarācārya’s commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra.

śarīrī — the soul, owner of the body.

Śārkarākṣa — lit. “those who have sand in their eyes”; those situated in the gross bodily conception of life.

Sarmiṣṭhā — the second wife of King Yayāti. On account of overattachment to her, the king was cursed by Śukrācārya to lose his youth.

Śārṅga — the bow of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

sārṣṭi — the liberation of achieving equal opulence with the Lord.

sārṣṭi-mukti — the liberation of achieving opulences equal to those of the Lord.

sārūpya — (-mukti) Of the five types of liberation, the one in which one attains a form similar to the body of God.

sārūpya — the liberation of attaining a spiritual form like that of the Supreme Lord.

sārūpya-mukti — the liberation of having the same bodily features as the Lord’s.

sarva-jña — omniscient; one who knows everything — past, present and future.

sarva-kāma — one who desires material perfection.

sarva-kāma-deha — the body engaged for the satisfaction of all kinds of material desires.

Sarva-kāmada — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who fulfills the desires of His devotees.”

Sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam — Kṛṣṇa, the cause of all causes [Bs. 5.1].

Sarva-loka — all the material worlds.

Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya — A prominent scholar of Navya-nyāya logic and Vedānta who tried to instruct Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and then surrendered to Him. He is regarded as being in fact one of Lord Caitanya’s closest eternal associates.

Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya — a famous logician, adviser to King Pratāparudra of Orissa who surrendered to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

sarvārambha-parityāgī — one who is indifferent to both pious and impious activities.

Sarvātmāsee: Paramātmā

sarvātma-nivedanasee: Ātma-nivedana.

sāṣṭānga-pranāma (Daṇḍavat) — a respectful obeisance executed by prostrating eight limbs of the body, namely the thighs, feet, hands, chest, thoughts or devotion, head, voice, and closed eyes.

śāstra — Revealed scripture, or an authorized textbook in any subject.

śāstra — the revealed scriptures, obeyed by all those who follow the Vedic teachings. Śās means “to regulate and direct” and tra means “an instrument”; Vedic literature.

śāstra-cakṣuḥ — seeing everything through the medium of the Vedic literature.

sat — eternal, unlimited existence.

Śaṭ-sandarbha — Treatises on the Vedic scriptures, written by Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī.

Sat-sandarbha — six Sanskrit works on the science of devotional service or Vaiṣṇava philosophy by Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī. These works present the entire philosophy and theology of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavism in a systematic form. The six Sandarbhas are as follows: Tattva-sandarbha, Bhāgavata-sandarbha, Paramātma-sandarbha, Kṛṣṇa-sandarbha, Bhakti-sandarbha and Prīti-sandarbha. The Sat-sandarbha is also called Bhāgavata-sandarbha, as it is an exposition on the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam The first four Sandarbhas are devoted to sambandha-tattva, which establishes Krṣṇa as the highest Deity and the most exclusive object of worship. The Bhakti-sandarbha deals with abhidheya-tattva, which is bhakti (devotion to Krṣna), and the Prīti-sandarbha is concerned with prayojana-tattva, pure love of Godhead.

Śatānīka — the son of Nakula who was killed by Aśvatthāmā while awaking from sleep in his tent; the brother of King Virāṭa. He was killed by Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

Śatarūpā — the wife of Svāyambhuva Manu and mother of Devahūti.

satī rite — voluntary suicide by a chaste widow at her husband’s funeral.

Satī — the wife of Lord Śiva and the daughter of Dakṣa, who burned herself alive when her father insulted her husband; when a widow burns herself in her husband's cremation/funeral fire.

Śatrughna — The youngest of Lord Rāmacandra’s three brothers. He is an incarnation of Lord Aniruddha, one of the first four expansions of Lord Nārāyaṇa.

sattva — Goodness.

sattva-guṇa — Among the three modes of material nature, the mode of goodness. It encourages knowledge, peace, and purity.

sattva-guṇa — the mode of material goodness, predominated by Lord Viṣṇu.

Sattvatanu — Viṣṇu who expands the quality of goodness.

sattvic — Imbued with goodness.

sāttvika — symptoms of ecstatic love coming from the transcendental platform; in the mode of goodness.

sāttvika-bhāvas — In the development of pure love of God, ecstasies that arise automatically, without conscious intention. They are eight in number.

Sātvata scriptures — Vedic scriptures meant especially for the devotees of the Lord.

Sātvata-pañcarātra — one of the Pañcarātras, consisting of a conversation between Nārada Muni and Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa describing the rules and regulations of devotional service.

Sātvata-saṁhitās — scriptures that are products of the mode of goodness.

Satya — (-loka) Lord Brahmā’s planet, the topmost and purest region within the material creation.

satya — truthfulness.

satya-kāma — directing all of one’s desires to the Supreme Truth.

Satya-yuga — The first of four repeating ages that form the basic cycles of universal time. During its 1, 728,000 years, purity and spiritual competence are prominent.

Satya-yuga — the first and best of the four cyclic ages of a mahā-yuga in the progression of universal time. Satya-yuga is characterized by virtue, wisdom and religion. It is known as the golden age, when people lived as long as one hundred thousand years. It lasts 1,728,000 solar years.

Satyabhāmā — One of Kṛṣṇa’s eight principal queens, the daughter of Satrājit. At her request Kṛṣṇa brought the pārijāta flower by force from heaven.

Satyabhāmā — one of the principal queens of Lord Kṛṣṇa during His pastimes in the city of Dvārakā.

Satyadeva — a warrior from Kaliṅga who was killed by Bhīma during the Kurukṣetra war.

Satyadhṛti — a renowned archer on the side of the Pāṇḍavas. He was killed by Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

satyāgraha — fasting for political purposes performed by Mahatma Gandhi.

Satyajit — a brother of King Drupada. He was killed by Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

Sātyaki — the son of Śini, and a prominent member of the Yadu dynasty. He was an intimate friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa and student of Arjuna. He fought during the Kurukṣetra war and killed many kings on the side of the Kauravas.

Satyaloka — Lord Brahmā’s abode, the highest planet in the material universe; also called Brahmaloka.

Satyaṁ param — the Supreme Absolute Truth, Kṛṣṇa.

Satyaratha — a brother of King Suśarma, the King of the Trigartas.

Satyasena — another brother of King Suśarma, the King of the Trigartas. He was killed by Arjuna during the Kurukṣetra war.

Satyavarma — another brother of King Suśarma, the King of the Trigartas.

Satyavatī — the daughter of the fisherman King. She was the mother of Vyāsadeva by Paraśara Muni. She later married Mahārāja Śantanu and begot two children, Citrāṅgada and Vicitravīrya.

Satyavrata Manu — one of the administrative demigods who are the fathers and lawgivers of mankind.

Satyavrata — A sage who encountered Lord Matsya, the fish incarnation of Viṣṇu, and later became the current Manu, Vaivasvata.

Satyavrata — another brother of King Suśarma, the King of the Trigartas.

Satyeṣu — another brother of King Suśarma, the King of the Trigartas. He was killed by Arjuna during the Kurukṣetra war.

Saubha — the airship of King Śālva. It was created by the demon Maya, and Śālva used this airship to attack Dvārakā. It was destroyed by Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Saubhari Muni — a powerful mystic who accidentally fell down to sex attraction.

Saubhari — A sage who while meditating under the water of the Yamunāsaw a pair of fish mating and became sexually aroused. He then approached King Mandhātā and begged from him the hand of his fifty daughters. After enjoying family life for some time, he revived his interest in renunciation.

sauhṛdya — endeavor.

Śaunaka Ṛṣi — one of the chief sages at the conclave of sages gathered at the forest of Naimiṣāraṇya when Sūta Gosvāmī spoke Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Sautrāmaṇi — a particular Vedic fire sacrifice offered to Lord Indra.

Savitri — lady who saved her husband from death by her chastity.

sayujya — (-mukti) Of the five types of liberation, the one in which one merges into the existence of God and forgets one’s individual personality. Vaiṣṇavas consider it most unfavorable to devotional service.

sāyujya — the liberation of merging into the spiritual effulgence of the Lord.

sāyujya-mukti — the liberation of merging into the Brahman effulgence.

semolina — the cream-coloured cereal obtained from hard durum-wheat grains in the middle stages of flour milling when the wheat germ, bran, and endosperm are separated. The first millings of the endosperm are known as semolina. Semolina is ground fine, medium, and coarse. Besides being used for making pasta in Italy, where semolina enjoys great popularity, it is also used in Indian cuisine, where it is known as sooji. It is simmered for fluffy sweet halava puddings or savoury vegetable dishes called upma. I find that medium- or coarse-ground semolina yields the best semolina halava. Semolina is available at Indian, Italian, or specialty grocers and some supermarkets.

Śeṣa Nāga — an expansion of Lord Balarāma or Saṅkarṣaṇa who takes the form of a many-hooded serpent and serves as Lord Viṣṇu’s couch and other paraphernalia. He also holds the millions of universes on His hoods.

Śeṣa — See Ananta.

Śeṣa-līlā — the last twenty-four years of Lord Caitanya’s pastimes.

sesame oil — two types of sesame oil are referred to here. One is expressed from the roasted seeds of the annual plant Sesamum indicum. It is much favoured as a flavouring agent in Chinese and Korean cooking. It has a low smoking-point and a delicious roasted-sesame flavour. Generally this delicate brown oil is added as a final seasoning to a cooked dish. The golden oil expressed from the oil-rich unroasted sesame seeds has a slightly sweet smell and a clean taste. It has a higher smoking-point than roasted sesame oil and is used both as a salad oil and especially as a frying oil throughout the world, especially in Mexico and South India, where it is popular because it does not turn rancid, even in the hottest weather. Chinese sesame oil is available at Asian grocery stores, and the cold-expressed pale sesame oil is available at health food stores or well-stocked grocers and supermarkets.

sesame paste — a commonly used ingredient in Chinese cooking, not to be confused with tahini. Chinese sesame paste is made from whole, roasted, crushed sesame seeds. The oily, nutty-flavoured paste with a consistency of thick peanut butter has distinct smoky overtones and adds a special touch to savoury dishes. It is available at Asian grocery stores.

sesame seeds — the seeds of the cultivated annual plant Sesamum indicum, grown predominantly in India and China. These flat, pear-shaped seeds are generally lightly roasted to bring out the nutty flavour and are popular in many cuisines of the world. In western cuisine they are scattered on bread and cakes before baking; they are ground into a delicious Middle Eastern confection, called halva, and a semi-liquid paste called tahini; in Japanese cuisine they are roasted with sea salt and ground to a fine powder called gomashio a versatile condiment; and they are popular in many regional Indian cuisines.

sevā — Service.

sevā — devotional service.

sevā-aparādha — offenses in Deity worship.

Sevā-kuñja — The site of the rāsa dance in Vṛndāvana.

sevā-pūjā — Deity worship.

sevaka — a servant.

sevya — one who is served.

shaphari fishCyprinus saphore, a small bright fish that glistens when darting about in shallow water.

shenai — A woodwind instrument, similar to an oboe.

shikha — A tuft of hair grown at the crown of the head of male Vaiṣṇavas.

shrikanda — A rich sweet prepared from condensed yogurt.

shukla — white in the Satya-yuga.

Shyama — Krsna appearing bluish in the Dvarapa-yuga.

Śibi — A pious king who was tested by the demigods Indra and Agni, disguised as a hawk and a pigeon. To save the life of the pigeon, Mahārāja Śibi allowed his own flesh to be eaten by the hawk. The two demigods then revealed their identities and blessed Śibi.

sichuan peppercorns — the dried red berries of the small, feathery-leaved, spiny tree Xanthoxylum piperitum, grown in Sichuan province of South Eastern China. Sichuan peppercorns have a pungent smell, but only a faintly hot taste, and are an important ingredient in Chinese five-spice powder.

siddha — One who has perfected one’s spiritual practice.

siddha — a perfected person, or mystic; a demigod from Siddhaloka; one who has realized the Brahman effulgence; a perfect devotee.

Siddha-bakula — The tree in Purī under which Haridāsa Ṭhākura lived and chanted the holy name.

siddha-cāula — brown rice.

siddha-deha — The spiritual body.

siddha-deha — a perfected spiritual body.

siddha-svarūpa — The perfection of one’s original spiritual characteristics.

Siddhaloka — the heavenly planet whose inhabitants possess all mystic powers; the planets of materially perfect beings.

siddhānta — The perfect conclusion according to Vedic scriptures.

siddhāntic — Relating to siddhānta.

Siddhas — A class of celestial beings advanced in spiritual discipline and naturally possessed of the eight mystic powers, such as the abilities to become atomic in size and to control other people’s minds.

siddhi — Perfection; one of the eight mystic yogic perfections.

siddhi-kāṇḍasee: Jñāna-kāṇḍa.

siddhi-lobhī — one who is greedy for material perfection.

Siddhi-traya — philosophical work of Yāmunācārya

siddhi-vraja — the mystic perfections.

siddhis — mystic perfections usually acquired by yoga practice and natural to residents of Siddhaloka: becoming small like a particle (aṇimā-siddhi), or lighter than a soft feather (laghimā-siddhi), Get anything from everywhere (prāpti-siddhi), becoming heavier than the heaviest (mahimā-siddhi), create something wonderful or annihilate anything at will (īśitva-siddhi), to control all material elements (vaśitva-siddhi), possessing such power as will never be frustrated in any desire (prākāmya-siddhi), assuming any shape or form one may even whimsically desire (kāmāvasāyitā-siddhi).

Sikhaṇḍī — the son of King Drupada, and the rebirth of Ambā, the daughter of the King of Kāśī. He was born to kill Bhīṣma, who he hated from his previous life. During the battle of Kurukṣetra, he fought in front of Arjuna, while attacking Bhīṣma. Bhīṣma dropped his weapons and this allowed Arjuna to fill Bhīṣma with arrows. Śikhaṇḍī was later killed by Aśvatthāmā, while awaking from sleep in the Pāṇḍavas camp.

śikhara — curved temple tower or spire The roof of the sanctum sanctorum It is crowned by a cakra in a Lord Viṣṇu temple and a trident in a Lord Śiva temple

śikhariṇī — a blend of yogurt and sugar candy.

śikṣa — Instruction.

śikṣā-guru — An instructing spiritual master.

śikṣā-guru — an instructing spiritual master.

Śikṣāṣṭaka — eight verses by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu glorifying the chanting of the Lord's holy name.

Śikṣāṣṭakam — Eight verses of instruction in devotional service written by Lord Caitanya.

Siṁha-dvāra — the main gate of the Jagannātha temple.

siṁhāsana — Lit., “lion seat,” an altar or throne.

siṁhāsana — sitting place.

Śimulī — silk cotton tree.

Sindhu — a province in Bharata that was ruled by Jayadratha.

Śini — the father of Sātyaki, and a king of the Yadu dynasty.

Śiśumāra — A dolphin-shaped constellation encircling the polestar. It is sometimes worshiped as a visible form of the Supreme Lord.

śiśumāra-cakra — the orbit of the polestar.

Śiśupāla — A king of Cedi who viciously insulted Kṛṣṇa at Yudhiṣṭhira’s Rājasūya sacrifice and lost his head to Kṛṣṇa’s Sudarśana disc.

Śiśupāla — a king who was an enemy of Kṛṣṇa. The son of Damaghoṣa and King of Cedi. He was an incarnation of Jaya, a gatekeeper of Vaikuṇṭha. He was killed by Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa during the Rājasūya sacrifice.

śiṣya — Disciple or student.

Sītā — (-devī) The eternal consort of Lord Rāmacandra. She appeared as the daughter of King Janaka of Videha.

śītā — subordinate ecstatic symptoms including singing, yawning, etc.; a division of anubhāva.

Sītā — the beloved consort of Lord Rāmacandra. She appeared in the house of Janaka Mahārāja, one of the twelve leading spiritual authorities in the universe. She was abducted by ten-headed demon, Ravana.

Sītā-Rāma — the transcendental couple manifested as Lord Rāmacandra, Kṛṣṇa’s incarnation as the perfect king, and Lord Rāma’s eternal consort, Sītā.

Śiva — The special expansion of the Supreme Lord who is uniquely neither God nor jīva. He energizes the material creation and, as the presiding deity of the mode of ignorance, controls the forces of destruction.

Śiva — the guṇa-avatāra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamoguṇa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He disguised himself as a Kirāta and fought with Arjuna over a boar. Lord Śiva was pleased with Arjuna and gave him a benediction of the Paśupati astra by which he could kill Jayadratha. He also gave a benediction to Aśvatthāmā that he could kill the remaining soldiers on the side of the Pāṇḍavas while they were sleeping in their tents. He is also considered the greatest Vaiṣṇava, or devotee, of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.

Śiva-liṅga — a rounded stone representation of Lord Śiva's genitals often worshiped as a Deity by Śaivites.

Śiva-pūjā — worship of Lord Śiva's linga. See above.

Śiva-rātrī — Lord Śiva's appearance day, celebrating his advent from between Lord Brahmā's eyebrows.

śiva-tattva — The unique category occupied by Lord Śiva, that of neither jīva nor God. He is infallible but comes into contact with the illusory material energy.

Śivaloka — The personal abode of Lord Śiva in the last shell that covers the material universe, the shell of false ego.

Sivānanda Sena — a great householder devotee of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

śivatama — the most auspicious.

Six Gosvāmīs — Six great disciples of Lord Caitanya who wrote many books on devotional service and established the major temples in Vṛndāvana.

Six Gosvāmīs — they were deputed to go to Vṛndāvana to excavate the present places of pilgrimage. The present city of Vṛndāvana and the importance of Vrajabhūmi were thus disclosed by the will of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. See also: Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī, Jīva Gosvāmī, Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, Raghunātha Dāsa Gosvāmī and Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī.

Skanda Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas, or Vedic historical scriptures. It extensively describes Kali-yuga.

śleṣokti — a statement having two meanings.

śloka — A stanza of Sanskrit verse.

śloka — a Sanskrit verse.

smaraṇa — (m) The devotional practice of remembering or meditating on the Supreme Lord, especially by focusing on His names, forms, pastimes, and devotees.

smaraṇam — the devotional process of remembering the Supreme Lord; constant thinking of Kṛṣṇa (one of the nine methods of devotional service).

smarta — the popular name for followers of the Vedas who are overly attached to elevation and salvation. They are very careful about the latter, but often not the spirit, of scriptural injunctions, confounding the mundane with the spiritual. They are very fond of the smṛti-śāstras and are thus known as smartas.

smārta-brāhmaṇa — a brāhmaṇa interested more in the external performance of the rules and rituals of the Vedas than in attaining Lord Kṛṣṇa, the goal of the Vedas; one who strictly follows the Vedic principles on the mundane platform.

smārta-guru — a professional spiritual master.

smārta-vidhi — the regulations of mundane religious activity.

smṛti — “What is remembered,” the secondary Vedic literatures, which need not be passed down verbatim but may be reworded by the sages who transmit them in each age. The Purāṇas and Dharma-śāstras are among the smṛtis.

Smṛti — remembrance, a vyabhicāri-bhāva; revealed scriptures supplementary to the śruti, or original Vedic scriptures, which are the Vedas and Upaniṣads; scriptures compiled by living entities under transcendental direction; the corollaries of the Vedas.

smṛty-ācārya — a spiritual master expert in the supplementary Vedic literatures.

Snāna-yātrā — the bathing ceremony of Lord Jagannātha.

sneha — affection for Kṛṣṇa, at which stage the lover cannot be without the beloved.

snigdha — very peaceful.

snowpeas — the young, sweet pea pods of Pisum saccaIatum, also called mange-tout in France. This delicately flavoured vegetable is a versatile cooking ingredient, especially in Chinese cooking, where it is stir-fried quickly to retain its flavour and colour. The pods should have their tops removed and their strings pulled away before use. They're available at Chinese grocers and supermarkets.

soma — The juice of a sacred plant, offered in the more elaborate Vedic sacrifices to the principal demigods. The performers of these sacrifices who are entitled to drink the soma juice gain elevation to heaven.

Soma — the presiding deity of the moon.

soma-rasa — a life-extending heavenly beverage available on the moon to demigods on the higher planets.

Somadatta — the son of King Bālhīka and the grandson of King Pratīpa. He had three sons name Bhūri, Bhūriśravas, and Śala. He was killed by Sātyaki during the battle of Kurukṣetra.

Somaka — a former king of Pāñcāla.

Somarāja — Candra, the demigod in charge of the moon.

soul — the eternal living entity, who is the marginal energy, eternally part and parcel of the Supreme Lord.

sparśas — the consonants in the Sanskrit alphabet.

sphūrti — Vision.

spirit soulsee: Jīva

split peas — skinned and split, green or yellow dried peas. The green ones are especially good for cooking to a creamy puree. Yellow split peas can replace toovar or chana dal in a recipe. They are available at all supermarkets and grocery stores.

śrāddha — The offering of worship and food to one’s departed parents and forefathers, normally done once a year.

śrāddha — the ceremony of making offerings to one’s ancestors to free them from suffering; firm faith and confidence.

 śraddhā — Faith.

śrāddha-pātra — a plate (containing remnants of prasādam) offered to the forefathers and then to the best of the brāhmaṇas.

śrama — fatigue, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

śrauta-panthā — the acquirement of knowledge by hearing from scriptural authorities.

śrauta-vākya — acceptance of the words of the revealed scripture and of the spiritual master.

śravaṇa — The primary devotional practice of hearing the glories of the Supreme Lord.

sravaṇa — the devotional process of hearing about the Supreme Lord.

sravaṇam kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ — [SB 7.5.23] — the devotional process of hearing and chanting about Lord Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa.

sravaṇam — hearing from an authorized source. (This is the chief of the nine methods of devotional service).

śravaṇaṁ-kīrtanam — Hearing and chanting, the basic methods of devotional service in practice.

śreyas — activities which are ultimately beneficial and auspicious when performed over time.

śreyas — activities that are ultimately beneficial and auspicious.

Sri (sree, shree, shri) — honorific prefix, to be used before the Deities name.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa-vijaya — a book of poems by Guṇarāja Khān, considered to be the first poetry book written in Bengal.

Śrī Lakṣmī — The eternal consort of the Supreme Lord Nārāyaṇa.

Śrī Saila — sacred hill near Tirupati.

Śrī — A term of respect given to men, male deities, and sacred objects or literatures; a name for Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune.

Śrī — the energy of Godhead that maintains the cosmic manifestation; See also: Śrīla

Śrī-bhāṣya — the commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra by Rāmānujācārya.

Srī-kaṇtha — a name for Lord Śiva meaning “he whose throat is beautifully blue.”

śrī-mūrti — The deity of the Supreme Lord established in a temple for regular worship.

Śrīdāmā — One of Kṛṣṇa’s closest friends, the brother of Śrīmati Rādhārāṇī.

Śrīdhara Svāmī — The author of the oldest existing commentary on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Śrīdhara Svāmī — the author of the earliest extant Vaiṣṇava commentaries on Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Though a resident of Benares and a sannyāsī of Śaṅkara's Māyāvāda school of philosophy, he taught pure Vaiṣṇava philosophy. He was a devotee of Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva, and his works were highly regarded by Lord Caitanya, especially his Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam gloss, Bhāvārtha-dīpikā. The Lord commented that anyone who wanted to write a commentary on Srīmad-Bhagavatam must follow the commentary of Srīdhara Svāmī.

Śrīla Prabhupāda — His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda, the founder-ācārya of the International Society for Kṛṣṇa Consciousness.

Śrīla Prabhupāda — (1896-1977) His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. He is the tenth generation from Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The founder-ācārya, spiritual master of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). Śrīla Prabhupāda was the widely-acclaimed author of more than seventy books on the science of pure bhakti-yoga, unalloyed Kṛṣṇa consciousness. His major works are annotated English translations of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, and the Bhagavad-gītā As It Is. He was the world's most distinguished teacher of Vedic religion and thought. Śrīla Prabhupāda was a fully God conscious saint who had perfect realization of the Vedic scriptures. He worked incessantly to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness all over the world. He guided his society and saw it grow to a worldwide confederation of hundreds of ashrams, schools, temples, institutes, and farm communities.

Śrīla — “Endowed by the goddess of fortune,” a respectful title used by Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas for their spiritual masters.

Śrīla — a title indicating possession of exceptional spiritual qualities. The most beautiful (spiritual) person.

Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam — Also known as the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, it teaches unalloyed devotional service to Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam — the foremost of the eighteen Purāṇas, the complete science of God that establishes the supreme position of Lord Kṛṣṇa. It was glorified by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu as the amalam purāṇam, “the purest Purāṇa.” It was written by Śrīla Vyāsadeva as his commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra, and it deals exclusively with topics concerning the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Lord Kṛṣṇa) and His devotees. Śrīla Prabhupāda has given Bhaktivedanta purports in English and wonderfully presented it to the modern world, specifically to give a deep understanding of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Śrīmān — “Having the favors of the goddess of fortune,” an honorific used with the names of respected males.

Śrīmatī — The female form of the title Śrīmān.

Śrīnivāsa — a name of Viṣnu.

Śrīnivāsācārya — a chief follower of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana.

Srīvāsa Ṭhākura — the incarnation of Śri Nārada Muni in Lord Caitanya's pastimes. An intimate associate of Lord Caitanya. His courtyard served as the birthplace of Lord Caitanya's saṅkīrtana movement, and his altar was the site of the mahā-prakāśa pastime (twenty-one hours of ecstatic manifestation) of Śrī Caitanya.

Śrīvatsa — A curl of white hair on the chest of Lord Viṣṇu that represents the goddess of fortune and distinguishes Him from His liberated devotees who have attained sārūpya.

Śrīvatsa — the sign of the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, on the chest of Lord Viṣṇu, or Nārāyaṇa.

śṛṅgāra — conjugal love of God; an array of garments worn for amorous purposes.

sṛṣṭi-śakti — the power to create the cosmic manifestation.

Srutakarmā — the son of Sahadeva by Draupadī. He fought in the battle of Kurukṣetra and was killed by Aśvatthāmā while rising from sleep in his tent.

Srutakīrti — a son of Arjuna by Draupadī. He fought in the battle of Kurukṣetra and was killed by Aśvatthāmā while rising from sleep in his tent.

Śrutāyudha — a king of Kaliṅga. He was the son of Varuṇa by Parṇāśā. He died on the battlefield of Kurukṣetra when he released his mace at Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. His mace could not be thrown at one who was not engaged in combat or it would come back and kill the one who threw it. Since Lord Kṛṣṇa was not engaged in combat, the mace came back and killed Śrutāyudha.

śruti — “What has been heard,” the original Vedas, meant to be passed on orally from generation to generation without change. They are considered coexistent with the Supreme Lord Himself and so in need of no author.

śruti — knowledge via hearing; the original Vedic scriptures (the Vedas and Upaniṣads), given directly by the Supreme Lord.

Śruti-gaṇa — the personified Vedas.

Śruti-mantras — the hymns of the Vedas.

śruti-phala — Lit., “the fruit of hearing.” A benediction of material or spiritual success given as a result of faithfully hearing various pastimes of the Lord and His devotees.

śruti-śāstra-nindana — offense of blaspheming the Vedic literature.

star anise — the dried, hard, brown, star-shaped fruit of the small evergreen tree Illicium verum. Star anise has a licorice-like flavour and odour and is an ingredient in the Chinese five-spice powder.

sthāna — the maintenance of the universe by Viṣṇu.

sthāṇu-puruṣa — mistaking a dry tree without leaves for a person.

sthāyī-bhāva — Continuous love of Godhead in devotional service.

sthāyi-bhāva — continuous love of Godhead in devotional service.

sthita-dhīr-muni(sthita — steady + dhīra — undisturbed + muni — sage) one who is always fixed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness and as a result is undisturbed by material nature.

stotra — a prayer.

Stotra-ratna — book of prayers composed by Yamunācārya.

strī — women.

strī-sambhāṣaṇa — talking with women.

stupa — hemispheric Buddhist monument of worship.

su-snigdha — affectionate.

su-viṣaya — regulated sense gratification according to the Vedas.

Subala — the father of Śakuni and Gāndhārī. He was the King of Gāndhāra.

śubha-dā — description of pure devotional service indicating that it bestows all good fortune.

Subhadrā — Kṛṣṇa’s sister, also known as Yogamāyā. She is Kṛṣṇa’s internal energy who arranges His pastimes and fosters spontaneous love for Him by making His intimate devotees forget He is God.

Subhadrā — younger sister of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and an incarnation of Yogamāyā, the internal potency of the Supreme Lord. She married Arjuna, and begot Abhimanyu as her son. She is the yellow Deity found between Lord Jagannātha and Baladeva.

Subrahmaṇya — Kārtikeya, the son of Lord Śiva. The god of war. Also known as Skanda.

Sudakshiṇa — A son of the king of Kāśī. After Kṛṣṇa killed that king, Sudakṣiṇa performed a fire sacrifice to unleash a demon to kill Kṛṣṇa. But the demon failed in that mission, returned to Kāśī, killed Sudakṣiṇa, and burned his city to the ground.

Sudakṣiṇa — a King of Kāmbhoja. He brought an akṣauhiṇī division of troops for Duryodhana. He was killed by Arjuna during Kurukṣetra war. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Sudāma Brāhmaṇa — A school classmate of Kṛṣṇa’s who later, being impoverished, visited Kṛṣṇa in Dvāraka to ask for aid. But he asked Him for nothing, and yet returned home to find his hut transformed into a palace.

Sudāmā Vipra — a poor householder friend and devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa who was given immeasurable riches by the Lord.

Sudāmā — one of the cowherd boy associates of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Sudarśana cakra — The disc weapon of Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu, which the Lord uses to dispatch those who dare to attack Him or His devotees.

Sudarśana cakra — the disc weapon of the Supreme Lord.

Sudarśana — the discus of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

śuddha-bhakta — A pure devotee of the Supreme Lord.

śuddha-bhakti — pure devotional service.

śuddha-bhāva — pure consciousness.

śuddha-nāma — The pure chanting of the name of the Supreme Lord.

śuddha-sattva — “Pure goodness,” the nonmaterial, incorruptible substance of the spiritual world. Also, the pure consciousness in which one can realize the Personality of Godhead.

śuddha-sattva — the spiritual platform of pure goodness.

Sūddīpta — the manifestation in a devotee of all eight ecstatic symptoms multiplied a thousand times and all visible at once.

Sudeṣṇā — the wife of King Virāṭa. Draupadī spent the last year of exile as a maidservant to this queen. (Virāṭa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Sudharmā — The royal assembly hall of the Yadavas, which Kṛṣṇa brought by force from Indra’s heaven.

Sudharmā — the royal assembly court of the Yadus at Dvārakā.

śūdra — A member of the laborer class, the last of the four occupational classes in the varṇāśrama social system.

śūdra — a member of the fourth social order, laborer class, in the traditional Vedic social system. He is meant to render service to the three higher classes, namely the brāhmaṇas, the kṣatriyas, and the vaiśyas.

śūdra-mahājana — a person born in a low family but raised to the platform of brāhmaṇa by initiation.

śūdrāṇī — A śūdra woman.

śūdrāṇī — the wife of a śūdra.

Sughoṣa — the conchshell of Nakula.

Sugrīva — The king of Kiṣkindha, a kingdom of monkeys. He and his monkey army helped Lord Rāma invade Laṅkā and defeat the demon Rāvaṇa.

Śuka — (-deva) A great renounced sage, son of Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. He heard Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam from his father and later repeated it to Mahārāja Parīkṣit.

śuka — parrot.

Sukadeva Gosvāmī — an exhalted devotee who recited the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam to King Parīkṣit during the last seven days of the King's life.

 Śukadeva Gosvāmī — The sage who originally spoke the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam to King Parīkṣit just prior to the king’s death.

sukham — happiness or pleasure.

śukla — a person in the mode of goodness; also, a name for Lord Viṣṇu.

śukla-cāula — white rice.

Śukla-yajur Veda — a version of the Yajur Veda.

Sukra — (-ācārya) The spiritual master of the demons and ruling deity of the planet Venus. He instructed Bali not to give charity to Lord Vamana and rejected Bali when Bali disobeyed.

Śukrasee: above

Śukrācārya — the spiritual master of the demons.

sukṛti — auspicious activity; pious persons.

sukṛtina — pious persons who obey the rules of scripture and are devoted to the Supreme Lord.

Sulocana — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

sumac — an important souring agent in Arab cuisine. The seeds of Rhus corioria are ground to a purple-red powder and used to add a sour, pleasantly astringent taste to recipes as a preferred substitute for lemon. The extracted juice of the soaked seeds is used in salads and in some vegetable dishes to impart a tamarind-like flavour. Sumac has a pleasant, rounded, fruity sourness which is well worth experimenting with. It is available at Middle Eastern grocers.

sumanaḥ flowers — Flowers of Feronia elephantum, the wood apple; dull red or greenish flowers born in panicles.

Sumeru — The great mountain that is the axis of the universe. It is also called Meru and Mahāmeru. It extends upward through the center of the earthly planetary system, and on its upper peak lies Satyaloka, the abode of Lord Brahmā.

Sumeru — a great mountain situated at the center of the universe. It is the hub of the chariot of the sun.

Sunābha — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

Sunanda — one of the chief personal servants of Lord Nārāyaṇa in His spiritual abode, Vaikuṇṭha.

Sundara-ārati — Evening worship of the Deity in the temple. Supersoul an expansion of the Supreme Lord as an all-pervading personal presence in the universe and in the heart of every living entity.

Sunīthā — the wife of King Aṅga and mother of Vena.

Sunīti — the mother of Dhruva Mahārāja.

Suparṇa — another name for Garuḍa.

supersoulsee: Paramātmā

Supratīka — the name of King Bhagadatta’s elephant that was very formidable during the battle of Kurukṣetra. He was killed by Arjuna.

supti — deep sleep, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

surabhī cows — the cows in the spiritual world, which yield unlimited quantities of milk.

suras — demigods, devotees.

Śūrasena — A great Yādava king, father of Vasudeva and Kuntī. The province of ūrasenā, which includes the Mathurā district, is named after him.

Śūrasena — the father of Vasudeva and Pāthā.

Suruci — the stepmother of Dhruva Mahārāja.

Sūrya — The sun-god, currently Vivasvān; also, the sun planet.

Sūrya — the sun-god, who became the father of Karṇa. He is said to be the right eye of the Supreme Lord.

Sūryadatta — a brother of King Virāṭa. He was killed by Droṇa during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Karṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Suryaloka — the sun planet.

Suśarmā — the King of the Trigartas. He was an ally of Duryodhana and brought an akṣauhiṇī division of troops to Kurukṣetra. He was very envious of Arjuna and was ultimately killed by Arjuna.

suṣupti — deep sleep, one of the levels of material consciousness.

Sūta Gosvāmī — the son of Romaharsaṇa. He was the great sage who related the discourse between Parīkṣit Mahārāja and Śukadeva Gosvāmī, which forms the basis of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. See also: Naimiṣāraṇya

 Sūta Gosvāmī — Ugraśravā, the son of Romaharṣaṇa who succeeded his father as speaker of the Purāṇas and epics to the sages at Naimiṣāraṇya after his father was killed by Lord Balarāma. He spoke the Mahābhārata, all the Purāṇas, and finally Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Suta — the son of Vaidarbhī, or, in other words, one who is somewhat advanced in fruitive activities and who comes in contact with a devotee spiritual master. Such a person becomes interested in the subject matter of devotional service.

sūta — a mixture of different castes.

Sutala — (-loka) Among the seven subterranean heavens, the one third closest to the earth. Bali Mahārāja lives there, with Lord Vāmana as the guard at his gate.

Sutapā — The husband of Pṛśni and father of the Supreme Lord’s incarnation Pṛśnigarbha. Sutapā in his previous life had been Kaśyapa, the father of Lord Vāmana, and after his life as Sutapā he became Vasudeva, Kṛṣṇa’s father.

Sutapā — the name of Vasudeva in a previous birth.

Sutasoma — the son of Bhīmasena and Draupadī. He was killed by Aśvatthāmā while awaking from sleep on the last night of the Kurukṣetra war.

sūtra — A Vedic aphorism.

sūtra — the intermediate manifestation of the mahat-tattva, when it is predominated by the mode of passion; an aphorism expressing essential knowledge in minimum words; a book of such aphorisms.

śva-paca — dog-eater.

sva-sevana-śakti — the power to perform the personal service of the Supreme Lord.

svabhāva — One’s individual nature.

svābhāvya — a scripture.

svadharmas — specific duties of a particular body performed in accordance with religious principles in order to achieve liberation.

svādhyāya — personal study of Vedic literature.

Svāhā — the wife of Agni, the fire-god.

svakīyā-rasa — relationship with Kṛṣṇa as a formally married wife.

svāmī — See swami.

svāmī — one fully in control of his senses and mind; title of one in the renounced, or sannyāsa, order. See also: gosvāmī

svāmī-nārāyaṇa — the impersonalist misconception that one can become God simply by adopting the dress of a sannyāsī.

Svāṁśa — Kṛṣṇa’s plenary portions.

Svāṅga-viśeṣābhāsa-rūpa — the form by which the Lord begets living entities in the material world .

Svar — the upper material planets.

 Svar — (Svarga, Svargaloka) The heavenly domain (above Bhūvarloka) of Indra, king of the demigods.

Svārājya-lakṣmī — the personal spiritual potency of the Lord.

svarāt — The independent quality of the Supreme Lord.

svarāṭ — fully independent.

svargaloka — the heavenly planets or abodes of the demigods in the material world.

Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī — Lord Caitanya’s secretary and constant companion who helped the Lord experience the attitude of Rādhārāṇī.

Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī — the incarnation of the gopī Viśākha. He served as the secretary and intimate associate of Lord Caitanya at Purī and used to ease the pain of the Lord's feelings of separation by reciting appropriate verses and singing devotional songs.

svarūpa — Lit., “own form.” The true, essential nature of the soul, or of any particular thing.

svarūpa — the living entity's original eternal relationship of service to the Lord, the real form of the soul.

svarūpa-gata — the stage of understanding Kṛṣṇa in truth while still maintaining some material connection.

svarūpa-lakṣaṇa — the characteristics of the soul when purified of all material contamination.

svarūpa-sandhi — the meeting of similar ecstasies from separate causes.

svarūpa-siddhi — The perfection of one’s eternal relationship with Lord Kṛṣṇa.

svarūpa-siddhi — the perfection of one’s eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord.

svarūpa-upalabdhi — realization of one’s eternal service relationship with the Lord.

svarūpa-vismṛti — forgetting one’s real constitutional position.

Svayaṁ-rūpa — Kṛṣṇa’s original form as a cowherd boy in Vṛndāvana.

Svāyambhuva Manu — The original father of the human race.

Svāyambhuva Manu — the Manu who appears first in Brahmā’s day and who was the grandfather of Dhruva Mahārāja.

svayaṁvara — The ceremony in which a princess may choose her own husband.

svayaṁvara — the ceremony in which a princess is allowed to choose her husband.

Sveta — a son of King Virāṭa. He was killed in a ferocious battle with grandfather Bhīṣma. (Bhīṣma Parva in Mahābhārata)

Śvetadvīpa — “The white island,” the abode of Lord Kśīrodaka-śāyī Viṣṇu. It is a spiritual planet manifest within the material world, in the Ocean of Milk.

Svetadvīpa — the spiritual planet where Lord Viṣṇu resides within the material universe.

Svetāśvatara Upaniṣad — one of the 108 Upaniṣads. It very clearly presents the Vaiṣṇava point of view regarding the Lord and the living entity.

swami — One who controls his senses; a title of one in the renounced order of life.

swamiji — Lit., “great master.” A common term of respect addressed to sannyāsīs.

śyāma — The dark-blue color, not seen in the material world, that is the hue of Kṛṣṇa’s body.

Syāmānanda Gosvāmī (1535-1631) — one of the great Vaiṣṇava ācāryas who lived in Vṛndāvana after the time of Śrī Caitanya. He received the direct mercy of Rādhārāṇī in Vṛndāvana, was tutored in the bhakti-śāstras by Jīva Gosvāmī and delivered countless souls, especially in Orissa. He was initiated by Hṛdāya Caitanya dāsa and got the name Duḥkhi Kṛṣṇadāsa, but later he was called Syāmānanda by Jīva Gosvāmī, who noted his attraction for the Deity Śyāmāsundara.

Syamantaka — A jewel able to produce heaps of gold and assure prosperity and good health. The sun-god gave it to his devotee Satrājit, who lost it and suffered misfortune after refusing Kṛṣṇa’s request to place it in the care of King Ugrasena. Kṛṣṇa eventually recovered the jewel and returned it to Satrājit, who offered it to Kṛṣṇa along with his daughter Satyabhāmā.

Śyāmasundara — A name of Kṛṣṇa, meaning “blackish” and “beautiful.”

Śyāmasundara — the name of Kṛṣṇa meaning “He who has a very beautiful blackish form.”




Tad-ekātma-rūpa — forms of the Lord which are nondifferent from His original form, but which have different bodily features and specific activities.

tadīya — everything belonging to the Lord.

tahini — a semi-liquid sesame butter used in Middle Eastern cuisine. This cream-gray paste has the consistency of runny peanut butter and is the basis of various salad dressings and mezze (entrees) throughout Greece, Cyprus, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria where it is known as tahina.

Takṣaka — A winged snake who was protected by his friend Indra from the conflagration of the Khāṇḍava forest and who later, by the curse of Śṛṅgi, was fated to kill Mahārāja Parīkṣit. Kaśyapa Muni tried to stop Takṣaka from approaching Parīkṣit, but Takṣaka managed to carry out his mission by bribing the sage.

Takṣaka — the king of the snakes. He killed Mahārāja Parīkṣit.

takuwan — Japanese white daikon radish, pickled in rice bran and salt.

tamālaGarcinia xanthochymus, cinnamomum tamala, a tree with blackish blue bark resembling the color of Kṛṣṇa. It is sacred to Vaiṣṇavas and is featured in many of the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and His associates.

tamāla — a tree whose color resembles Lord Kṛṣṇa's. It is found mostly in Vṛndāvana, India.

tamarillo — sometimes called the tree tomato, this glossy plum-red egg-shaped fruit is a native to South America and the Peruvian Andes. It is now grown commercially in New Zealand. Tamarillos have a juicy, slightly acid flesh, and can be used raw, after peeling, for fruit salads or cooked in purees and chutneys. It is available at selected produce markets and greengrocers.

tamarind — the pulp extracted from the brown pods of the tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica. The fresh pulp has a sour fruity taste and is popular in Indian and Indonesian cooking. Tamarind is available in different forms commercially. The crudest consists of blocks of partly dried, unpitted, broken, sticky, fibrous pods. They should be macerated in water to extract the sour brown tamarind juice, as should another form, in blocks of fibrous pulp without seeds. The most convenient is tamarind concentrate, which can be used straight from the jar. Tamarind makes excellent sweet-and-sour chutneys or sauces, and can be used in vegetable dishes and curries. Tamarind in its various forms is available at Indian and South East Asian grocery stores.

tamas — Ignorance; one of the modes of material nature.

tamas — the material mode of ignorance.

Tamasaḥ — the coverings of the universe.

tamboura — (tanpura) A stringed instrument played in classical Indian music.

tāmbūla — Betel nut.

tamo-guṇa — Among the three modes of material nature, the mode of darkness. It causes ignorance, delusion, foolishness, and inertia.

tamo-guṇa — the mode of ignorance, or darkness of material nature. It is controlled by Lord Śiva.

tānava — the ecstatic symptom of thinness.

Tāṇḍava-nṛtya — Lord Śiva’s dance, which he performs at the time of universal devastation, and at other times also.

tantras — Scriptures that teach mantra chanting and Deity worship, especially for persons not initiated into study of the original Vedas. There are separate tantras for Vaiṣṇavas and Śaivites. The most important Vaiṣṇava tantras are the Pañcarātra Āgamas.

Tantras — minor scriptures describing various rituals, mostly for persons in the mode of ignorance; Vedic literatures consisting mostly of dialogues between Lord Śiva and Durgā. They contain instructions on Deity worship and other aspects of spiritual practice; special hymns for conjuring magic or producing mystical effects.

tapaḥ — the acceptance of hardships for spiritual realization.

tapas — Lit., “heat.” Austerity, or trouble undertaken voluntarily for a higher purpose.

Tapas — (Tapoloka) The planet of renounced sages, above Svarga, Jana, and Mahar, where exalted persons such as the four Kumāras reside.

tapas — austerity or penance. There are many rules and regulations in the Vedas which apply here, like rising early in the morning and taking a bath. Sometimes it is very troublesome to rise early in the morning, but whatever voluntary trouble one may suffer in this way is called penance. Similarly, there are prescriptions for fasting on certain days of the month. One may not be inclined to practice such fasting, but because of his determination to make advancement in the science of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he should accept such bodily troubles when they are recommended.

tapasvī — One who performs tapas (austerities).

tapasvīs — persons who undergo severe penances for elevation to higher planets.

tapasya — Austerity.

tapasya — austerity; voluntary acceptance of some material trouble for progress in spiritual life.

Tapoloka — a heavenly planet.

Tapoloka-vāsīs — The residents of Tapoloka.

Tārā — the wife of Bṛhaspati. She was kidnapped by the moon-god.

tarragon — this famous gourmet culinary herb with long slender leaves and pungent, bittersweet, tangy flavour is popular in French cuisine, especially as one of the four fresh herbs found in fines herbes (along with parsley, chives, and chervil) and in butters, soups, sauces, creams, and salads. French tarragon (Artemesia dracunculus) is stronger in flavour than Russian tarragon (Artemesia dracunculoides). Tarragon is available at select greengrocers and produce markets.

tāruṇyāmṛta — the nectar of youth.

taṭastha-śakti — the living entities, the marginal potency of the Supreme Lord.

tattva — truth.

tattva-darśī — one who has seen the truth.

tattva-jñāna — “Scientific knowledge” of one’s relationship with the Supreme, the means of reviving that relationship, and the perfection achieved by that means.

Tattva-sandarbha — One of the seven sandarbhas written by Śrīla Jiva Goswami as his commentary on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

tattvas — the Absolute Truth’s multifarious categories.

Tattvavādīs — the followers of Madhvācārya.

tattvavit — one who knows the Absolute Truth in His three different features.

tava — a slightly concave cast-iron frying pan used for cooking chapatis and other flat Indian breads.

 Teachings of Lord Caitanya — Śrīla Prabhupāda’s summary study of Lord Caitanya’s instructions.

tejas — Strength or power.

tempo — three-wheeler vehicle used like a small bus.

 Tenth Canto — The part of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam describing the most confidential pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

thai rice — a long-grain, aromatic white rice from Thailand. Sometimes called Jasmine rice, it cooks to large, soft, fluffy grains.

Ṭhākura Haridāsasee: Haridāsa Ṭhākura

ṭhākurāṇīs — the wives of devotees.

thali — vegetarian meal which includes many different preparations, usually all you can eat; a low-rimmed metal plate.

Theodore Parker (1810-1860) — an American Unitarian clergyman and social reformer who promoted the antislavery cause.

thyme — this attractive herb is grown in Mediterranean regions and Asia Minor. There are more than one hundred species of thyme, but common or garden thyme, Thymus vulgaris, is frequently used. Others include lemon, mint, orange, golden-lemon, caraway-scented, woolly-stemmed, and the silver thyme. Used fresh or dried, thyme imparts a distinctively warm, pleasant, aromatic flavour and is popular as one of the great European culinary herbs. It is used alongside bay and parsley in bouquet gami, and goes into many soups and vegetable dishes (especially potatoes, zucchini, eggplants, and sweet peppers). It is available fresh at selected greengrocers and dried at grocery stores and supermarkets.

ṭīkā — Commentary.

ṭīkā — a commentary.

tilaka — Auspicious marks, of sacred clay and other substances, applied daily on the forehead (and sometimes on various limbs as well) to dedicate one’s body to God.

tilaka — sacred clay markings placed on the forehead and other parts of the body to designate one as a follower of Viṣṇu, Rāma, Śiva, Vedic culture, etc.

timiṅgila — a huge aquatic monster that can swallow whales.

Tīrtha (teertha) — a sacred place of pilgrimage associated with a pastime of an incarnation of God, such as a holy river, a temple of the Lord, or the residence or place of meditation of a holy sage or saintly person.

tīrtha — Literally, the ford of a river. A holy place, especially one at which pilgrims bathe for purification.

Tīrtha-śrava — Name of Viṣṇu meaning one who receives prayers offered at holy places.

tithis — days of the Vedic calendar measured according to the phases of the moon.

titikṣā — tolerance; endurance of unhappiness.

tofu — soybean curd, or tofu, is used in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indonesian cooking. This white, almost tasteless and odourless substance is produced from soya beans that have been successively crushed, boiled in water, strained, and pressed into a mould. Tofu is low in calories and is cholesterol-free. High in protein, tofu is becoming increasingly popular in western kitchens. Standard Chinese tofu, which is lightly pressed, is sold fresh in most Chinese grocers. It has the consistency of firm custard. A firmer variety of tofu is also available at Chinese shops. Japanese style tofu is the variety usually sold in health food shops in Australia. Being firmer, it is good for slicing, cubing, and deep-frying. Dried beancurd sheets and sticks are also used in Chinese cooking and are available at Chinese grocery shops.

tonga — two-wheeled horse carriage.

toovar dal — also called arhar dal, toor dal, or pigeon peas, these cream-coloured split lentils, which are paler in colour, flatter, and larger than yellow split peas, are widely used for cooking in Northern and Southwestern India. They have a delightful, slightly sweet flavour and are easy to digest, especially in the famous South Indian soup-like dishes rasam and sambar. Toovar dal is available at Indian grocers.

tortilla — a thin, round, flat bread made from white cornmeal, or mesa. Tortillas are the national breads of Mexico and are cooked on a griddle. They're eaten fresh and are also the basis of Mexican dishes such as Enchiladas and Tacos.

Toṭa-gopīnātha temple — Atemple in Jagannātha Purī near the tomb of Haridāsa Ṭhākura.

Ṭoṭā-gopīnātha temple — a temple in Jagannātha Purī housing a Deity which was found by Lord Caitanya and given to Gadādhara Prabhu to worship. He also gave Gadādhara a place to live in the garden of Yameśvara, where the temple was later built. Gadādhara Prabhu stayed there for the duration of his life, absorbing himself in the service of Lord Caitanya and Gopīnātha.

trāsa — shock, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Trayī — the three Vedas. (Ṛg, Sāma and Yajur), which explain fruitive activities for material benefits.

Trayodaśī — the thirteenth day after the new and full moons.

Tretā — (-yuga) The second of the four repeating ages that form the basic cycles of universal time. During its 1, 296,000 years, the mode of passion comes into prominence. The system of Vedic fire sacrifices is developed elaborately during the Tretā-yuga.

Tretā-yuga — the second in the cycle of the four ages of the universe or mahā-yuga. It lasts 1,296,000 years. In this age Lord Rāmacandra appeared.

tri-daṇḍa — a staff, made of three rods, carried by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs who are devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa, signifying service with mind, body and words.

tribhaṅga — Lit., “bent in three places.” Refers to the three curves of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s posture as He plays upon His flute.

Tribunga — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s famous three-curved stance.

tridaṇḍi — Lit., “three sticks.” The daṇḍa, or staff, composed of three long sticks tied together, carried by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs.

tridaṇḍi-bhikṣu swami — A Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī who lives by begging.

tridaṇḍi-sannyāsī — a member of the renounced order of life who accepts the personal nature of the Absolute Truth.

Trigarta — a province in ancient Bharata. The King of this country, Suśarma, fought on the side of Duryodhana and was killed by Arjuna.

Tripura — Three flying cities built by Maya Dānava for the three sons of the demon Tāraka. These aerial fortresses rendered the enemies of the demigods invincible, until the secret was discovered that Lord Śiva could destroy the cities with a single arrow at the rare moment when they conjoined in a straight line.

Tripura — a large district on the far eastern side of Bengal, just south of the Śrī Hatta (Sylhet) area of Assam. In olden times Tripura was part of Bengal. The kings of Tripura had a long-standing relationship with Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda and later with Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.

Triveṇī — the confluence of the three sacred rivers Ganges, Yamunā and Sarasvatī at Prayāga.

Trivikrama — a name for the Supreme Lord indicating His incarnation as the dwarf brāhmaṇa Vāmanadeva. Meaning literally “He who took three big steps,” this name recalls the Lord's pastime of extending His foot through the coverings of the material universe and into the Causal Ocean.

Triyuga — a name of Viṣṇu meaning one who appears in only three yugas.

Triyugī — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who appears in three yugas,” namely Satya, Tretā, and Dvāpara. The Lord appears in a covered incarnation in Kali-yuga, as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Tṛṇāvarta — A demon friend of Kaṁsa’s who assumed the form of a whirlwind and entered Vraja to kill Kṛṣṇa but instead was killed by Him.

Tṛṇāvarta — a whirlwind-shaped demon who was sent by Kaṁsa to kill Kṛṣṇa, but whom Kṛṣṇa killed instead.

Try-adhīśvara — the proprietor of the three worlds.

Tulādhāra — A saintly businessman of ancient Kāśī who taught religious principles to the sage Jājali, earning them both entry into Vaikuṇṭha.

tulasī — The sacred plant most beloved of Kṛṣṇa. Tulasī is a form of the gopī  Vṛndā, the expansion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī who owns the Vṛndāvana forest. Without the leaves of the tulasī plant, no offering of food is accepted by Lord Viṣṇu, and no worship to Him is complete.

Tulasī — a pure devotee in the form of a basil plant held sacred by the Vaiṣṇavas and is very dear to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Its leaves and mañjarīs (buds) are always offered to His lotus feet. See also: Mañjarī

tulasī-mālā — A strand of beads made of wood from the sacred tulasī plant, which is very dear to Kṛṣṇa. Vaiṣṇavas wear a small mālā on their necks as a sign of submission to Kṛṣṇa and carry a larger mālā with which to count the Lord’s names they have vowed to recite.

tumeric — the rhizome, or underground stem, of the tropical herb Curcuma longa. The short, waxy, orange-yellow rhizomes are boiled, cleaned, sun-dried, and then ground to a fine aromatic, yellowish powder that is used as an essential ingredient in Asian and, especially, Indian cooking. Turmeric adds a brilliant yellow colour to cooked dishes and imparts a slightly bitter, pungent flavour. Used in vegetable, legume, bean, and dal dishes, it introduces colour and warmth to a dish, although overuse produces excessive colour and bitterness. Turmeric powder is available at Indian grocers and specialty stores.

turnip, preservedsee: Choy boh

tyāga — renunciation of activities performed with material consciousness.




Uccaiḥśravā — a horse born from nectar and considered to be a representative of Kṛṣṇa.

ucchṛṅkhala — whimsical.

udāna-vāyu — bodily air which moves upwards and which is controlled by the breathing exercises of the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system.

udāra — magnanimous.

udbhāsvara — eternal ecstatic symptoms or bodily transformations which indicate ecstatic emotions in the mind.

Uddhava — One of Kṛṣṇa’s closest friends, His most confidential adviser in Mathurā and Dvārakā.

Uddhava — a learned disciple of Bṛhaspati and confidential friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa in Dvārakā.

uddīpana — A category of bhāva which means “that which lights the lamp of bhakti.”

uddīpta — the manifestation in a devotee of five, six or all eight ecstatic symptoms simultaneously.

udghātyaka — a dancing appearance of a player in drama.

udvega — the ecstatic symptom of mental agitation.

ugra-karma — evil activities.

Ugrasena — The Bhoja king of Mathurā whose throne was usurped by his son Kaṁsa but restored by Kṛṣṇa after Kṛṣṇa killed Kaṁsa.

Ugrasena — the King of the Yadus, and the father of Kaṁsa.

Ugraśravā — See Sūta Gosvāmī.

Ujjvala — The mood of conjugal love with the Lord.

Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi — a Sanskrit work that describes the complete science of mādhurya-rasa, the conjugal relationship with Lord Kṛṣṇa. It was compiled by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in the sixteenth century.

Ulūka — the son of Śakuni. He was killed by Sahadeva during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Śalya Parva in Mahābhārata)

Ulūpī — the wife of Arjuna and the mother of Irāvān.

Umā — Pārvatī, the eternal consort of Lord Śiva.

Umā — wife of Lord Śiva. See also: Durgā

umeboshi plum — small, salted, pickled plum that is used in Japanese cooking. It has a dry, sour taste and is used to flavour rice and other foods.

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh — the present Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

unmāda — craziness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Upadeśāmṛta — “The Nectar of Instruction” ; a practical guide to the development of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Upadeśāmṛta — a short Sanskrit work by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī containing important instructions about devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa.

upadesha — instruction.

upādhi — Material designation.

upādhis — material designations.

upādhyāya — a teacher who makes a living teaching Sanskrit grammar.

Upala-bhoga — morning refreshments offered to Lord Jagannātha.

Upananda — Nanda Mahārāja’s brother.

upanayana — A boy’s investiture with the sacred thread, a ceremony that marks the beginning of his Vedic education.

Upaniṣads — The philosophical chapters of the Vedas, organized into 108 books. They are also called Vedānta, meaning “the culmination of Vedic knowledge,” and were explained systematically by Dvaipāyana Vyāsa in his Vedānta-sūtra.

Upaniṣads — one-hundred and eight Sanskrit treatises that embody the philosophy of the Vedas. Considered the most significant philosophical sections and crest jewels of the Vedas, the Upaniṣads are found in the Āraṇyaka and Brāhmaṇa portions of the Vedas. They are theistic and contain the realizations and teachings of great sages of antiquity.

Upaplavya — the capital city of King Virāṭa.

Upapurāṇas — Minor Purāṇas.

uparasa — the first kind of rasābhāsa, occurring when one tastes one kind of mellow and something extra is imposed.

Upāsanā-kāṇḍa — portions of the Vedas dealing with ceremonies of worship, especially demigod worship.

upāsya — worshipable.

Upendra — Another name of Lord Vāmana, meaning “the younger brother of Indra.”

Upendra — Vāmanadeva, who sometimes appears as the younger brother of Indra.

urad dal — the split dried beans from the plant Phaseolus mungo. Whole urad beans are blackish-gray. Split urad dal are cream-white. Their shape resembles their close relative, split mung dal. They are used to prepare protein-rich purees and soups in Indian cuisine. Combined with grains and milk products, their protein value increases. In South Indian cooking they are fried in ghee or oil for use as nutty seasoning, and soaked and ground into dumplings, pancakes, and fried savouries. Urad dal is available at Indian grocery stores.

Uragas — The Nāga race of divine serpents who live in the subterranean region of Pātāla.

Urugāya — the name of the Lord meaning “He who is glorified with sublime prayers.”

Urukrama — the Supreme Lord, who takes wonderful steps (especially as the dwarf-brāhmaṇa incarnation, Vāmanadeva).

Urvaśī — one of the heavenly Apsarās. She tried to seduce Arjuna when he was in the heavenly kingdom. Arjuna refused to satisfy her because he considered her the mother of the Kuru dynasty having taken Puru for her husband. Because of Arjuna’s refusal, Urvaśī cursed Arjuna to become a eunuch for one year. This curse took its effect during last year of exile of the Pāṇḍavas in the kingdom of Virāṭa; a woman from the heavenly planets who became enamored of King Purūravā.

Ūrdhva-retasaḥ  — "ūrdhva=upwards", "retasa=semen" - The semen flowing upwards, meaning those in the celibasy who are completely detached from sex. - SB 4.8.1 PURPORT: "The system of brahmacarya has been current since the birth of Brahmā. A section of the population, especially male, did not marry at all. Instead of allowing their semen to be driven downwards, they used to lift the semen up to the brain. They are called ūrdhva-retasaḥ, those who lift up. Semen is so important that if, by the yogic process, one can lift the semen up to the brain, he can perform wonderful work—one’s memory is enabled to act very swiftly, and the duration of life is increased. Yogīs can thus perform all kinds of austerity with steadiness and be elevated to the highest perfectional stage, even to the spiritual world. Vivid examples of brahmacārīs who accepted this principle of life are the four sages Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanātana and Sanat-kumāra, as well as Nārada and others."

Ūrdhva-puṇḍra — means the vaishnava tilaka on the forehead of devotees "going upwards".

Ūrdhvaga — one of the ten sons of Kṛṣṇa with his wife Lakṣmaṇā, the daughter of the king of Madras province.

Ūṣā — The daughter of the demon Bāṇa who fell in love with Kṛṣṇa’s grandson Aniruddha.

ūti — the urge for creation that is the cause of all inventions.

Utkala — the eldest son of Dhruva Mahārāja.

utsāha — Enthusiasm.

utsāha-mayī — Lit., “false enthusiasm.” Self confidence based on insufficient realization.

uttama — Topmost or highest.

Uttama — the brother of Dhruva Mahārāja.

uttama-adhikārī — A topmost devotee.

uttama-adhikārī — a first-class devotee who is expert in Vedic literature and has full faith in the Supreme Lord; he can deliver the whole world.

Uttamaḥśloka — A name of Kṛṣṇa meaning “He who is praised with transcendental song or poetry.”

Uttamaśloka — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, who is worshiped by select poetry.

Uttamaujas — a prince of Pāñcāla, and a valiant warrior during the Kurukṣetra battle. He was killed by Aśvatthāmā while in his bed during the last night of the Kurukṣetra war.

Uttānapāda — the king who was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu and the father of Dhruva Mahārāja.

Uttarā — King Virāṭa’s daughter, the wife of Arjuna’s son Abhimanyu. Kṛṣṇa entered her womb to save her son, Parīkāit, the last heir to the Kuru throne.

Uttarā — the daughter of King Virāṭa and the wife of Abhimanyu. Virāṭa first wanted Arjuna to marry his daughter, but Arjuna declined and said that his son, Abhimanyu, should marry her. Uttarā became the mother of King Parīkṣit.

Uttara — a son of King Virāṭa. He was afraid to confront the Kurus when they stole the cows from his father’s kingdom. Arjuna revealed his disguise to this prince and then single-handedly fought with the Kauravas and defeated them all. Uttara was killed in the first day’s fighting at Kurukṣetra by Śalya.




vācāla — a person who can speak according to Vedic authority.

vacasāmṛtena — “By words as sweet as nectar.” 

Vahana mandapa — where the mount of the Deity (vahana) such as Lord Viṣṇu carrier's Garuḍa or Śiva's bull Nandi is located.

Vaibhāṣikas — a class of philosophers, akin to the Buddhists, who existed when Lord Kṛṣṇa spoke Bhagavad-gītā and who accept that life is a product of a mature combination of material elements.

Vaidarbhī — the woman who was formerly a man but took birth as a woman in his next life because of too much attachment to woman. Darbha means kuśa grass. In fruitive activities, or karma-kāṇḍīya ceremonies, one requires kuśa grass. Thus vaidarbhī refers to one who takes birth in a family of karma-kāṇḍīya understanding. However, if by karma-kāṇḍa activities one by chance comes in contact with a devotee, as Vaidarbhī did when she married Malayadhvaja, his life becomes successful. He then pursues the devotional service of the Lord. The conditioned soul becomes liberated simply by following the instructions of the bona fide spiritual master.

vaidhi-bhakti — The regulative practice of devotional service.

vaidhi-bhaktisee: Vidhi-bhakti.

vaidūrya-maṇi — a spiritual gem that can display different colors.

vaijayantī — A special garland worn by the Supreme Lord. It is made from flowers of at least five different colors, and it hangs down at least to His knees.

Vaijayantī — a garland containing flowers of five colors and reaching down to the knees. It is worn by Lord Kṛṣṇa.

vaikāli-bhoga — food offered to the Deity at the end of the day.

Vaikuṇṭha lokas — variegated spiritual planets situated in the brahmajyoti.

Vaikuṇṭha — (-loka) Literally, the place free from anxiety. The kingdom of God, full of all opulences and unlimited by time and space.

Vaikuṇṭha — the eternal planets of the spiritual world, the abode of Lord Nārāyaṇa, which lies beyond the coverings of the material universe. Literally, “the place with no anxiety”.

Vaikuṇṭha-dūtas — Messengers of the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha.

Vaikuṇṭha-jagatsee: Vaikuṇṭha lokas above.

Vaikuṇṭha-nātha — Nārāyaṇa, “the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha.”

Vaikuṇṭha-nātha — the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha.

 Vaikuṇṭha-vāsīs — The residents of Vaikuṇṭha.

Vaikuṇṭheśvara — Nārāyaṇa, “the Lord of Vaikuntha.”

vairāgī — a person in the renounced order of life.

vairāgya — Indifference to material attractions.

vairāgya — renunciation; detachment from matter and engagement of the mind in spirit.

Vaiśampāyana — The disciple of Dvaipāyana Vyāsa who narrated the Mahābhārata to King Janamejaya.

Vaiśeṣikāsee: Kaṇāda.

Vaiṣṇava — A devotee of the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu. Since Kṛṣṇa and Viṣṇu are different aspects of the same Supreme Person, devotees of Kṛṣṇa are also Vaiṣṇavas.

Vaiṣṇava — a devotee of the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa.

Vaiṣṇava-aparādha — an offense to the devotee of Kṛṣṇa.

Vaiṣṇava-dharma — the eternal principle of service to the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu.

Vaiṣṇavism — the science of bhakti-yoga, devotional service to Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa.

vaiśya (vaishyas) — member of the mercantile or agricultural class, according to the system of four social orders and four spiritual orders.

vaiśya — A member of the third among the four occupational divisions of the varṇāśrama social system. The vaiśyas engage in agriculture, cow protection, and business.

Vaivasvata Manu — the current Manu, the seventh of fourteen.

Vaivasvata-manvantara — The present period of cyclical universal time, ruled over by Vaivasvata Manu. During the lifetime of Lord Brahmā, which corresponds to the duration of the universe, there are 504,000 Manus.

Vaiyāsakisee: Śukadeva Gosvāmī

Vajra — the great grandson of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He became the king of Mathurā when Lord Kṛṣṇa left this world.

Vajradatta — the son of King Bhagadatta. He fought with Arjuna for the sacrificial horse.

Vāli — name of a monkey who was the son of Indra, the King of heaven, and elder brother of Sugrīva, the monkey king in the epic Rāmāyaṇa.

Vālmīki — The sage who composed the great epic history of Lord Rāmacandra’s life. At first a vicious criminal, Vālmīki became purified by unintentionally chanting the name Rāma.

Vālmīki — the author of the original Rāmāyaṇa.

Vāma — left-wing group of gopīs, who are eager to be jealously angered.

Vāmadeva — a great sage who was a competitor of Gautama Ṛṣi's. He was the secretary of Daśaratha Mahārāja, the father of Lord Rāma.

Vāmana — (-deva) Lord Viṣṇu’s form as a young brāhmaṇa boy, one of the daśa-avatāras, the ten most famous incarnations of the Lord. After begging three steps of land from Bali Daityarāja, Vāmanadeva covered with His first two steps the entire universe, and for the third step Bali offered his own head. Pleased with Bali’s surrender, Lord Vāmana offered to become the guard at Bali’s door.

Vāmanadeva — the Supreme Lord's fifth incarnation as a dwarf brāhmaṇa, to whom Bali Mahārāja surrendered everything. See also: Trivikrama

vana — forest.

vānaprastha — A man or woman in the retired order of life, the third stage of spiritual progress in the varṇāśrama social system. In this order a married man leaves home and travels to the forest and holy places of pilgrimage, either with or without his wife, to prepare himself for full renunciation, sannyāsa.

vānaprastha — retired family life, in which one quits home to cultivate renunciation and travels from holy place to holy place in preparation for the renounced order of life; the third order of Vedic spiritual life.

Vāṇaras — The race of forest monkeys who helped Lord Rāmacandra invade Laṅkā and defeat Rāvaṇa.

vandana — the devotional process of offering prayers to the Lord.

vāṇī — Instructions.

vāṇī — the words of the spiritual master, which exist eternally.

vaṇik — a merchant.

vanilla — the pod of the climbing tropical orchid vanilla planifolia. The vanilla flavouring material is obtained from the dried, cured, partially ripe pods. The white crystalline compound called vanillin, present only in the cured black pods, provides the delicately sweet, rich, Spicy, and persistent aroma which characterises vanilla. Whole vanilla beans are cooked with creams, custards, and sauces in French cuisine. The beans can be washed, dried and re-used. Vanilla sugar and pure vanilla essence are substitutes. Vanilla beans are available at specialty grocers.

vapu — The body; sometimes refers to the physical presence of the spiritual master.

vapu — the physical presence of the spiritual master.

Varadarāja — Deity of Lord Viṣṇu worshipped Kāñcīpuram.

Varāha Purāṇa — one of the eighteen Purāṇas. It deals with the transcendental pastimes of the Lord's boar incarnation.

Varāha — (-deva) Lord Viṣṇu’s incarnation as a huge boar, who killed the demon Hiraṇyākṣa and lifted the earth from the depths of the Garbha Ocean.

Varāha — the gigantic boar incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Vārāṇasī — one of the oldest and most famous places of pilgrimage in India; also known as Kāśī and Benares. It is a center of impersonalistic, or Māyāvāda, philosophy. Here is where Lord Caitanya defeated Prakāśānanda Sarasvati, the leading Māyāvādī of his day.

Vāraṇāvata — the place where Duryodhana built the palace of lac. (Ādi Parva in Mahābhārata)

varṇa — In the varṇāśrama social system, the four occupational divisions: brāhmaṇas (teachers and priests), kṣatriyas (rulers and warriors), vaiśyas (businessmen and farmers), and śūdras (workers).

varṇa — one of the four Vedic social-occupational divisions of society, distinguished by quality of work and situation with regard to the modes of nature (guṇas). See also: brāhmaṇa; kṣatriya; vaiśya; śūdra.

varṇa-saṅkara — children conceived without regard for Vedic religious principles; thus, unwanted population.

varṇāśrama — The Vedic social system, consisting of four occupational divisions (varṇas) and four stages of spiritual development (āśramas).

varṇāśrama-dharma — the system of four social and four spiritual orders established in the Vedic scriptures and discussed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā.

Varṣāṇā — The town in which Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī lived during Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes on earth.

vartma-pradarśaka-guru — the one who first gives information about spiritual life.

Varuṇa — The demigod who presides over water and the oceans.

Varuṇa — the demigod in charge of the oceans.

vāsanā — a wish or desire.

Vasanta-rāsa — The anniversary of the rāsa dance Kṛṣṇa held in the spring.

vāsīs — Residents.

Vasiṣṭha — A great sage, one of the mind-born sons of Brahmā, reborn in a later age as a son of Mitra and Varuṇa. He served as priest for Lord Rāmacandra, Indra, Vaivasvata Manu, Ambarīṣa, Hariścandra, Yudhiṣṭhira, and others.

Vasiṣṭha — a great sage who was a rival of Viśvāmitra Muni's. He was the family priest of Mahārāja Daśaratha, the father of Lord Rāmacandra.

Vastra-haraṇa-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s pastime of stealing the gopīs’ clothes.

vastu-gata — the stage of being completely uncontaminated by the material body and mind.

Vasudeva — the father of Kṛṣṇa, and the half-brother of Nanda Mahārāja; the state of pure goodness, which transcends the material modes of nature and in which one can understand the Supreme Lord.

Vasudeva — Kṛṣṇa’s father in Mathurā and Dvārakā. He and his wife Devakī were persecuted by Kaṁmsa for many years before Kṛṣṇa delivered them by killing Kaṁsa.

Vāsudeva — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, son of Vasudeva, and proprietor of everything, material and spiritual.

Vāsudeva — Kṛṣṇa, the son of Vasudeva. Vāsudeva is also the name of Kṛṣṇa’s first expansion outside Vraja, and of the first of the quadruple expansions in Vaikuṇṭha.

vāsudeva-parāyaṇa — one whose desire is fixed on the Supreme Lord.

Vasundharā — a name for mother earth meaning “she who has very fertile soil and unlimited wealth.”

Vasus — A group of eight major demigods born from Kaśyapa and Aditi.

Vasuṣeṇa — a name for Karṇa during his younger years.

Vatsa — (-asura) A demon friend of Kaṁsa’s who entered Vraja in the form of a calf and was killed by Kṛṣṇa.

vātsalya-rasa — the relationship with Kṛṣṇa as His parent.

vātsalya-ratisee: vātsalya-rasa above.

Vatsāsura — a demon who came to Vṛndāvana in the form of a calf to kill Kṛṣṇa but who was instead killed by Him.

Vāyu — The god of the wind, one of the principal demigods administering the universe.

vāyu — air, one of the three major elements of the gross body; the demigod in charge of the wind. He was the father of Bhīma and Hanumān.

Vedasee: Vedas above.

veda-cakṣuḥ — literally, seeing through the eyes of the Vedas.

veda-vāda-rata — one who gives his own explanation of the vedas a smārta; fruitive workers who become entangled in material activities disguised as spiritual activities.

Veda-vyāsa — See Dvaipāyana Vyāsa.

Vedānta — The conclusion of Vedic philosophy.

vedānta — the conclusion of Vedic philosophy; the philosophy of the Vedānta-sūtra of Śrīla Vyāsadeva, containing a conclusive summary of Vedic philosophical knowledge and showing Kṛṣṇa as the goal.

vedānta-darśana — the philosophy of Śrīla Vyāsadeva, which culminates in bhakti-yoga.

Vedānta-sūtra (Brahma-sūtra) — Śrīla Vyāsadeva’s conclusive summary of Vedic philosophical knowledge, written in brief codes. The philosophy of the Absolute Truth, which finds implicit expression in the Vedas and the Upaniṣads, was put into a systematic and more explicit form in the Vedānta-sūtra. All apparent contradictory statements of the vast literature of the Vedas are resolved by the great Vyāsa in this work. In this work there are four divisions 1) reconciliation of all scriptures; 2) the consistent reconciliation of apparently conflicting hymns; 3) the means or process of attaining the goal (spiritual realization); and 4) the object (or desired fruit) achieved by the spiritual process. The Vedānta-sūtra establishes that Godhead exists, that devotion is the means of realizing transcendental love for Godhead, and that this love is the final object of man's endeavors. This book is the textbook of all theistic philosophy, and, as such, many commentators have elaborated on the significance of its conclusions.

Vedānta-sūtra — A concise systematic explanation of the Vedic Upaniṣads. It was written by Dvaipāyana Vyāsa and has been commented on by the impersonalist Śaṅkara and by great Vaiṣṇava ācāryas like Rāmanuja, Madhva, and Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa.

Vedāntavādī — A follower of Vedānta, or one who knows Kṛṣṇa perfectly.

vedāntī — a person who knows Vedānta, that is, who perfectly knows Kṛṣṇa.

Vedas — The original revealed scriptures, eternal like the Supreme Lord and thus in need of no author. Because in Kali-yuga the Vedas are difficult to understand or even study, the Purāṇas and epic histories, especially Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, are essential for gaining access to the teachings of the Vedas.

Vedas — the original Veda was divided into four by Śrīla Vyāsadeva. The four original Vedic scriptures, Saṁhitās (Ṛg, Sāma, Atharva and Yajur) and the 108 Upaniṣads, Mahābhārata, Vedānta-sūtra, etc. The system of eternal wisdom compiled by Śrīla Vyāsadeva, the literary incarnation of the Supreme Lord, for the gradual upliftment of all mankind from the state of bondage to the state of liberation. The word veda literally means “knowledge”, and thus in a wider sense it refers to the whole body of Indian Sanskrit religious literature that is in harmony with the philosophical conclusions found in the original four Vedic Saṁhitās and Upaniṣads. The message of the transcendental realm that has come down to this phenomenal world through the medium of sound is known as the Veda. Being the very words of Godhead Himself, the Vedas have existed from eternity. Lord Kṛṣṇa originally revealed the Vedas to Brahmā, the first soul to appear in the realm of physical nature, and by him they were subsequently made available to other souls through the channel of spiritual disciplic succession.

vedāśraya-nāstikya-vāda — agnosticism under the shelter of Vedic culture.

Vedic culture — life-style based on the tenets of the four original scriptures of India, the Vedas.

Vedic — Pertaining to the Vedas, or more broadly, following or derived from the Vedic authority.

Vedic — pertaining to a culture in which all aspects of human life are under the guidance of the Vedas.

Vena — the demoniac son of King Aṅga and father of King Pṛthu.

Veṅkateśvara — Deity of Lord Viṣṇu worshipped at Tirupati.

Vībhatsu — one of the ten names of Arjuna.

vibhāva — the causes or bases for relishing transcendental mellows.

Vibhinnāṁśa — the separated expansions of the Supreme Lord, the minute living entities, who are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa.

Vibhīṣaṇa — The saintly brother of Rāvaṇa who abandoned Rāvaṇa to join the side of Lord Rāma. After Rāvaṇa’s death, Vibhīṣaṇa was crowned king of Laṅkā.

Vibhīṣaṇa — a grandson of Pulastya Muni and the pious brother of Rāvaṇa. He was a staunch devotee of Lord Rāma, who offered him the kingdom of Śrī Lankā for four yugas. He is one of eight personalities who lives for more than one cycle of four yugas.

vibhu — Great.

Vibhu-ātmā — the Supersoul.

vibhūti — a secondary incarnation indirectly empowered by the Supreme Lord; opulence by which Kṛṣṇa controls the entire material manifestation.

vidagdha — one who is expert in the art of attracting women.

Vidagdha-mādhava — a seven-act play written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī describing the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana.

Vidarbha — an ancient province of old India. Rukmiṇī, the wife of Lord Kṛṣṇa, was the daughter of the King of this province.

vidarbha-rājasiṁha — the best of persons who are expert in fruitive activities.

viddha-bhakti — mixed devotional service.

Videha — the kingdom of Mithilā in India ruled by King Nimi.

Videharāja Nimi — a devotee king, ruler of Videha.

vidhi-bhakti — devotional service under scheduled regulations.

vidhi-mārgasee vidhi-bhakti above

Vidura — The Pāṇḍavas’ uncle who was the son of Dvaipāyana Vyāsa by the maidservant of the deceased Vicitravīrya. Vidura was an incarnation of Yama, who had been cursed to be born a śūdra.

Vidura — the son of Vyāsadeva by a maidservant of Ambalikā and the half brother of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was an incarnation of the great devotee mahājana, Yamarāja, and an uncle of the Pāṇḍavas. A great devotee of Kṛṣṇa who inquired and heard  from Maitreya Muni, as narrated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. He was cursed to become a Śūdra by Māṇḍavya Muni. He was constantly trying to restrain Dhṛtarāṣṭra from mistreating the Pāṇḍavas. In the end when Dhṛtarāṣṭra lost everything Vidura was able to deliver his brother to the path of self-realization.

vidūra-vigatasee: Caṇḍāla

Viduratha — An enemy of Kṛṣṇa’s who attacked Kṛṣṇa to avenge the death of his brother Dantavakra but was quickly felled by the Lord’s Sudarśana disc.

vidyā — knowledge.

Vidyādharas — A class of celestial beings with magical powers.

Vidyādharas — a race of celestial beings who are attendants of Lord Śiva and who possess material mystic knowledge.

Vidyanagara — at the time of cosmic desolution, Lord Matsya preserves the Vedic wisdom.

Vidyanagara — at the time of the cosmic desolution, Lord Matsya preserves the Vedic wisdom.

Vidyāpati — an author of Vaiṣṇava poetry who was particularly admired by Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

vigraha — Lit., “form,” often refers to the temple deity.

Vihara — Buddhist monastery

 VIHE — Vrindavana Institute for Higher Education.

vijara — not subjected to the miseries of old age.

vijātīya — one who is outside devotional service.

Vijaya — See Jaya and Vijaya.

Vijayā-daśamī — the celebration of the conquest of Laṅkā by Lord Rāmacandra.

vijaya-vigraha — Deity forms which are taken out of the temple for processions and other outdoor functions, generally because of their smaller, more manageable size.

Vijayadhvaja Tīrtha — a Vaiṣṇava spiritual master in the line of Madhvācārya. He was a commentator on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

vijighatsa — free from desire for material enjoyment.

vijita-ṣaḍ-guṇa — one who has conquered the six material qualities.

Vijitāśva — the eldest son of King Pṛthu (also known as Antardhāna).

vijñāna — Practical realization of spiritual knowledge.

vijñāna — the practical realization of spiritual knowledge.

vijñānam — specific knowledge of spirit soul, his constitutional position and his relationship with the Supreme Soul.

vijñānamaya — with full knowledge, that is, conscious of the self as different from matter.

vikarma — unauthorized or sinful work, performed against the injunctions of revealed scriptures.

vikarmī — One who works to satisfy his desires without following the regulations of scripture.

Vikarṇa — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was the only one to stand up in defense of Draupadī during the gambling match. He was killed by Bhīma during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

vilāsa — symptoms manifested in a woman’s body when she meets her lover.

Vilāsa-vigrahas — expansions of the Lord who manifest bodily differences.

vimānam — the tower over the sanctum of the deity; an airplane.

vimūḍhas — foolish rascals.

vimukti — Liberation.

vīṇā — The classical Indian lute.

vīṇā — a stringed musical instrument.

Vinatā — Dakṣa’s daughter who married Kaśyapa and gave birth to Garuḍa.

Vinda — a prince of Avanti. He was the bother of Mitravindā, a queen of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He was very envious of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. He was killed along with his brother Anuvinda during the Kurukṣetra war. Both brothers were killed by Arjuna.

Vindhyā — A range of hills that form the natural boundary between northern and southern India.

Vindhyācala — a range of mountains west of the Himālayas. See also: Agastya Muni

vine leaves — the leaves of the grape vine vitis vinifera. The most popular use of vine leaves in vegetarian cookery is to stuff them with aromatic rice. The resultant little parcels are enjoyed in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines as dolma or dolmades. Vine leaves are obtained fresh in countries where grapes grow (leaves from any vine yielding edible grapes are suitable) or purchased preserved in water, salt, and citric acid in jars or plastic pouches from Greek or Middle Eastern grocery stores.

viprasee: brāhmaṇa

vipralambha — ecstasy in separation.

vipralambha-bhāva — The ecstasy of separation from the Supreme Lord. Also called viraha-bhāva.

vipralipsā — the cheating propensity.

vīra-rasa — chivalry, one of the indirect relationships with Kṛṣṇa.

vīra-vrata — fully determined.

Vīrabhadra — the demon created by Lord Śiva to destroy the sacrifice of Mahārāja Dakṣa.

viraha — transcendental bliss in separation from the Lord.

Virajā River — the river that divides the material world from the spiritual world.

virakti — detachment.

Vīrarāghava Ācārya — a Vaiṣṇava spiritual master in the line of Rāmānujācārya, and commentator on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Virāṭ-puruṣa — the universal form of the Supreme Lord as the totality of all material manifestations.

Virāṭ-rupa — the universal form of the Supreme Lord. See also: Viśva-rūpa

Virāṭa — The kingdom where the Pāṇḍavas spent the last years of their exile incognito. Also, the name of its king. King Virāṭa’s daughter, Uttarā, became the wife of Arjuna’s son Abhimanyu and the mother of Parīkṣit.

Virāṭa — the King of the Matsyas. He unknowingly sheltered the Pāṇḍavas during their last year of exile. He took the side of the Pāṇḍavas and was killed by Droṇa during the Kurukṣetra war.

Virocana — A son of Prahlada and the father of Bali. Virocana, though a demon, diligently performed Vedic sacrifices and was famous for his charity to brāhmaṇas.

vīrya — one who has mercy.

viṣāda — moroseness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Viśālā — See Badarikā.

Visarga — the secondary creation by Brahmā.

viśaya — Materialistic activities.

viṣaya — the object of worship; an object of material sense gratification.

viṣaya-taraṅga — the waves of material existence.

viśayī — Materialistic person.

viṣayī — one who is interested only in material sense gratification.

Viśiṣṭādvaita-vāda — the Vaiṣṇava philosophy established by Rāmānujācārya’s Śrī-bhāṣya commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra.

viṣṇoḥ smaraṇa — the devotional process of remembering.

Viṣṇu — The Supreme Lord in His opulent feature as the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha, who expands into countless forms and incarnations.

Viṣṇu — the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His four-armed expansion in Vaikuṇṭha; A plenary expansion of the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Viṣṇu supervises the maintenance of the created universe, and enters into the material universe before creation. He is worshiped by all the demigods and sages, and described throughout the Vedas as the summum bonum of all knowledge — the Absolute Truth.

Viṣṇu-bhaktas — devotees in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Viṣṇu-bhakti — devotional service to Lord Viṣṇu.

Viṣṇu-dharma — one of the eighteen Purāṇas, or Vedic historical scriptures.

Viṣṇu-mantras — Authorized sacred sounds chanted to worship the Supreme Lord.

Viṣṇu-mūrtī — the Deity form of the Lord worshiped in the temple.

Viṣṇu-purana — scripture describing the glories of Lord Viṣṇu.

Viṣṇu-tattva — The original Personality of Godhead’s primary expansions, each of whom is equally God.

Viṣṇu-tattva — a primary expansion of Kṛṣṇa having full status as Godhead. The term applies to primary expansions of the Supreme Lord.

Viṣṇu-tilaka — See Tilaka.

Viṣṇu-yajña — a sacrifice performed for the satisfaction of Lord Viṣṇu.

Viṣṇudūta — The messengers of Lord Viṣṇu who take perfected devotees back to the spiritual world at the time of death.

Viṣṇudūtas — the messengers of Lord Viṣṇu who come to take perfected devotees back to the spiritual world at the time of death, the personal servants of Lord Viṣṇu, they closely resemble If Him in appearance.

Viṣṇuloka — the abode of Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. See also: Vaikuntha

Viṣṇupriyā-devī — the second wife of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, whom He left to accept sannyāsa, the renounced order of life.

Viṣṇurāta — Parīkṣit, who was “protected by Viṣṇu” while still in the womb.

Viśoka — the charioteer of Bhīma.

viśoka — callous to material distress and happiness.

Viśrāma-ghāṭa — (Viśrānti-tīrtha) The main bathing ghāṭa in the city of Mathurā on the river Yamunā. It is famous for being the place where Lord Varāha rested after killing the first demon in the universe, Hiraṇyakṣa.

Visrama-ghata — After Varaha killed Hiranyaksa, He spoke the Adi-varaha-Purana to mother Bhumi (Earth) while relaxing at Visrama-ghata. Thousands of years He rested here after killing Kamsa and dragging his body to shores of the Yamuna.

Visrama-ghata — After Varaha killed Hiranyaksa, He spoke the Adi-varaha-Purana to mother Bhumi (Earth) while relaxing at Visrama-ghata. Thousands of years He rested here after killing Kamsa and dragging his body to shores of the Yamuna.

viśrambha — devotional service devoid of a respectful attitude toward the Lord.

Viśruta — the son begotten by the Pracetās through Māriṣā.

viśuddha-sattva — the spiritual platform of pure goodness.

Viśva-rūpa (viraṭ-rūpa) — the universal form of Lord Kṛṣṇa, as described in the Eleventh Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā.

Viśva-rūpa — God’s form as the universe.

Viśvakarmā — The architect of the demigods.

Viśvakarmā — the architect of the devas or demigods. He built the city of Indraprastha for the Pāṇḍavas at the request of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Viśvakośa — an ancient Sanskrit dictionary.

Viśvambhara — one who maintains the entire universe and who leads all living beings; the name of Lord Caitanya before He entered the renounced order.

Viśvāmitra — A king in the dynasty of the moon-god who, inspired by rivalry with Vasiṣṭha, became a renounced sage.

Viśvāmitra — a prominent sage and rival of Vasiṣṭha Muni.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura — a great ācārya in the Caitanya school of Vaiṣṇavism and the most prominent ācārya after Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura. On the order of his guru he went to Vṛndāvana and by his life's end he had composed twenty-four valuable books on the science of bhakti. He established the Gokulānanda Temple. In his final years he lived at Rādhā-kuṇḍa; he has written commentaries on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī — A prominent Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava acarya in the line of Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura. In the mid seventeenth century he wrote commentaries on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Bhagavad-gītā, and books by followers of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa was his śiksādisciple.

Viśvarūpa — 1. A son of the demigod Tvaṣṭā. To win power to defeat the demons led by Vṛtra, the demigods took Viśvarūpa as their priest. But because he had a secret affinity for the demons and offered them oblations in sacrifice, Indra beheaded him. 2. The elder brother of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Visvarupa — brother of Lord Caitanya, he took sanyassa at an early age; the life-breath of Nimai.

viśvāsa — a government secretary; confidence.

Viśvāvasu — a leader of the Gandharvas, singers in the heavenly planets.

Viśveśvara — The principal deity of Lord Śiva in his holy city of Kāśī. It is located near Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭa.

vitarka — argument, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

vīthī — beginning of a drama consisting of only one scene.

vivāha-yajña — the sacrifice of marriage.

vivarta — illusion; also, sorrow and confusion due to nonfulfillment of material desires.

vivarta-vāda — the erroneous concept; propounded by Śaṅkarācārya, that God is no longer complete after He expands His energies for creation; the Māyāvādī interpretation of the Vedānta-sūtra that the Supreme Lord becomes changed when He expands and that all manifest varieties are unreal.

Vivasvān — The current sun-god. His children include Yamarāja, the river Yamunā, Vaivasvata Manu, and Śanaiścara (the ruler of the planet Saturn).

Vivasvān — the name of the present sun-god, to whom Bhagavad-gītā was instructed at least 120,400,000 years ago.

Viviṁśati — one of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

viyoga — the stage of separation when the mind is fully absorbed in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa.

Vraja — (-bhūmi) The eternal place of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes with the cowherds, manifest on earth in the district of Mathura.

Vraja — the 168-square-mile (84 krośa) area in the district of Mathurā where five thousand years ago Lord Krṣṇa displayed His pastimes. It is the principal holy place of pilgrimage for all Vaiṣṇavas. It is said in the śāstras that Vraja is the essence and sum total of all holy places. See also: Vṛndāvana.

vraja-bhakti — The pure devotion for Kṛṣṇa of the residents of Vraja.

vraja-bhāva — The ecstatic mood of the devotees of Vraja.

vraja-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes in Vraja.

Vrajabhūmisee: Vṛndāvana

Vrajanātha — Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Vraja.

Vrajavāsī — A resident of Vṛndāvana.

Vrajendra — Nanda Mahārāja, the foster father of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Vrajendra-kumāra — Kṛṣṇa, the child of King Nanda.

Vrajendra-nandana — Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

vrata — Vow.

Vṛddhakṣatra — the father of Jayadratha.

vrīḍā — shame, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Vṛka — (-asura) A demon to whom Lord Śiva granted the boon that any head he touched would at once break to pieces. When Vṛka wanted to try the boon on Lord Śiva, Lord Viṣṇu came in disguise and tricked Vṛka into touching his own head.

Vṛkodara — a name for Bhīmasena meaning “he of the voracious appetite.”

Vṛndā — (-devī) A principal gopī, a direct expansion of Śrīmati Rādhārāṇī. She is the presiding deity of Vṛndāvana forest, and the tulasī plant is her expansion. She and grandmother Paurṇamāsī make all the behind-the-scenes arrangements for Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa’s daily pastimes.

Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura — the incarnation of Vedavyāsa in Lord Caitanya's pastimes and the author of Caitanya-bhagavata, one of the earliest biographies of Lord Caitanya, in which he especially describes Caitanya Mahāprabhu's early pastimes.

Vṛndāvana — (-dhāma) Kṛṣṇa’s most beloved forest in Vraja-bhumi, where He enjoys pastimes with the cowherd boys and the young gopīs; also, the entire district of Vraja.

Vṛndāvana — Kṛṣṇa’s eternal abode, where He fully manifests His quality of sweetness; the village on this earth in which He enacted His childhood pastimes five thousand years ago; the topmost transcendental abode of the Supreme Lord. It is His personal spiritual abode descended to the earthly plane. It is situated on the Western bank of the river Yamunā. He was present on earth about 5,000 years ago. Also see Vraja.

Vṛndavana-candra — Kṛṣṇa, the “moon of Vrindavana.”

Vṛndavana-līlā — Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes in Vṛndāvana.

Vṛndāvana-vihāra — the pastimes of Vṛndāvana.

Vṛṣaparvā — A demon who fought in the armies of Vṛtra and Bali.

Vṛṣasena — the son of Karṇa. He was considered a Mahārathi. He was killed by Arjuna in the presence of his father Karṇa. (Karṇa Parva in Mahābhārata)

Vṛṣṇi — a famous king of the Yadu dynasty. Lord Kṛṣṇa took birth in his dynasty.

Vṛṣnis — See Yādavas.

Vṛtra — Vṛtrāsura, a great demon killed by Indra. He was actually the devotee Citraketu, who had been cursed to take a low birth.

Vṛtra — (-asura) A demon who in his past life as King Citraketu was cursed by Pārvatī and so took a demonic birth. Vṛtra led the demons against Indra but at heart was a pure devotee of Lord Viṣṇu. So when Indra killed Vṛtra, Vṛtra was glorified, and Indra had to suffer.

vyabhicārī-bhāvas — the thirty-three transitory bodily symptoms manifest in ecstatic love.

vyādhi — disease, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

vyakta — material creation when it is manifested from the total energy of mahat-tattva.

vyāna-vāyu — one of the internal bodily airs which is controlled by the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system. The vyāna-vāyu acts to shrink and expand.

Vyāsa — (-deva) See Dvaipāyana Vyāsa.

Vyāsasee: Vyāsadeva

Vyāsa-pūjā — Worship of the spiritual master, who represents Śrīla Vyāsadeva, on his appearance day.

Vyāsa-pūjā — worship of the compiler of the Vedas, Vyāsadeva; worship of the bona fide spiritual master as the representative of Vyāsadeva on his appearance day.

Vyāsadeva (Vyāsa) — the literary incarnation of God, and the greatest philosopher of ancient times. The son of Parāśara, and the compiler of the original Vedic scriptures, including the eighteen Purāṇas, Vedānta-sūtra, the Mahābhārata, and the Upaniṣads. He played a very important part in guiding the Pāṇḍavas during crucial times. He gave the vision of the battle of Kurukṣetra to Sañjaya so that he could relate it to Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He is still living in this world.

vyāsāsana — “The seat of Vyāsa,” a special seat reserved for the spiritual master, the representative of Vyāsadeva.

Vyāsāsana — the seat of Vyāsa, on which the representative of Vyāsadeva sits.




walla — A Hindi suffix signifying a vendor of goods or services.

water chestnuts — fresh water chestnuts, with their crunchy, succulent texture and sweet, nutty taste, are a common delicacy in Asian cuisine. They are actually the edible root of an aquatic plant. The fresh water-chestnut has a tight skin; it should be peeled and sliced as required. If unavailable at good Chinese produce markets, tinned sliced water chestnuts sold at Chinese grocery stores are an acceptable (though inferior-tasting) substitute.

whey — the liquid by-product when milk is curdled in the curd-cheese-making process, or from yogurt when it is allowed to drain in a cheesecloth. It can be used in bread-making, in soups, or to cook vegetables. Allowed to sour, it can be used as an agent to curdle further batches of milk. 




Yādava dynastysee: Yadu dynasty below.

Yādava — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who appears in the Yadu dynasty.”

Yadavadri — town of Melkot in South India.

Yādavas — (Yadus) The royal dynasty led by Kṛṣṇa in Mathurā and Dvārakā, descended from the ancient King Yadu, son of Yayāti. The dynasty included hundreds of thousands of valiant warriors and princes, all fully devoted to Kṛṣṇa.

Yādavendra — Kṛṣṇa, “Lord of the Yādavas.”

Yadu (Yādava) dynasty — the dynasty in which Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared.

 Yadu dynasty — The dynasty in which Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared.

Yadu — one of the sons of King Yayāti. He was the founder of the Yadu dynasty.

Yadu — One of the five sons of Yayāti and the forefather of the Yadu dynasty.

Yadu-kumāra — Kṛṣṇa as the young darling of the Yadus in Mathurā and Dvārakā.

Yadupati — the name of Kṛṣṇa meaning “King of the Yadu dynasty.”

Yadus — the descendants of Yadu.

 Yadus — See Yādavas.

yadvā-tadvā kavi — one who writes poetry without proper knowledge.

yajamānas — those for whom a priest executes sacrifices.

yajana — the duty of a brāhmaṇa to perform Vedic rituals.

yajña — a Vedic sacrifice; also, a name for the Supreme Lord meaning “the personification of sacrifice”; the goal and enjoyer of all sacrifices.

yajña — Vedic sacrifice, or any work done for the pleasure of the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu.

yajña-puruṣa — the supreme enjoyer of all sacrifices.

Yajñeśvara — an epithet of Kṛṣṇa, “Lord of sacrifice.”

Yajñeśvara — The Supreme Lord appearing as “the Lord of sacrifice.”

Yajur Veda — one of the four Vedas, the original revealed scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself. It extensively describes various medical procedures.

Yakṣa — ghostly followers of the demigod Kuvera, the treasurer of the demigods. They were born from the feet of Lord Brahmā.

Yakṣas — A militant class of celestial beings, obedient to the treasurer of the demigods, Kuvera. Although frequently grouped with the man-eating Rākṣasas, they are also called the puṇya-janas ( “righteous persons”).

yama — the process of controlling the senses.

Yama — (-rāja) The judge of sinful persons at death.

Yamadūtas — the messengers of Yamarāja, the lord of death.

Yamadūtas — The agents of Yamarāja, the superintendent of death and karmic justice.

Yamarāja — the demigod of death, who passes judgment on non-devotees at the time of death. He is the son of the sun-god and the brother of the sacred river Yamunā.

yamas — The first eight regulations observed from the beginning of the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system.

Yamunā — the sacred river where Kṛṣṇa performed many pastimes. One of the holy rivers of India, flowing through Vṛndāvana. It was here that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa sported when He was a young child. The personification of the Yamunā River, known as Kālindī, is the daughter of the sun god and the sister of Yamarāja, the god of death. She is also called Yamī. In Krṣṇa-līlā she became one of Krṣṇa's queens at Dvārakā.

Yāmunā — (-ācārya) A prominent teacher in the Śrī Vaiṣṇava sampradāya. He was the guru of the initiating guru of Rāmanujācārya. Śrī Yāmunācārya composed important books explaining the philosophy of Vedānta in the light of pure devotion to the Supreme Lord.

Yamunā — The holiest of rivers, flowing through Vraja-bhūmi and thus touched by the dust of Kṛṣṇa’s feet. The Yamunā personified is also known as Kālindī. After Kṛṣṇa established his capital at Dvārakā, she became one of His eight principal queens.

Yāmunācārya — a great Vaiṣṇava spiritual master and author in the Śrī-sampradāya, one of the important disciplic lines.

Yaśodā — the foster mother of Kṛṣṇa, who was the Queen of Vraja and wife of Mahārāja Nanda.

Yaśodā — (-devī) Kṛṣṇa’s mother in Vraja. She raised Him from infancy until He moved to Mathura. She is the most exalted of all of Kṛṣṇa’s devotees in the mood of parental love.

Yaśodā-nandana — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, who played as the son of Yaśodā.

Yaśodā-nandana, Yaśodā-vatsala — Kṛṣṇa, “the darling son of Yaśodā.”

yātrā — a journey.

Yavana — the servant of Yamarāja.

yavana — a class of humans fallen from the Vedic culture; a low-class person, generally a meat-eater; a barbarian.

yavanas — A barbarian race, descended from Turvasu, one of the sons of Yayāti. They have been identified with the Turks.

Yayāti — the king who, because of his lust, was cursed by Śukrācārya to prematurely accept old age.

Yayāti — An ancient king, cursed to become prematurely old. He begged his five sons to exchange his age for their youth, but only one, Puru, agreed. The others he cursed, including Yadu, the forefather of the dynasty in which Kṛṣṇa later appeared. Because the Yadus were cursed never to occupy an imperial throne, Kṛṣṇa, after killing Kaṁsa, declined the throne in favor of Ugrasena, who belonged to the Bhoja clan.

yeast — yeast used for baking commonly comes in two forms — compressed, or fresh, yeast; and dried or dehydrated yeast. When used in breadmaking, both varieties produce enzymes which act on simple sugars to make carbon dioxide gas. This aerates the bread dough, causing it to rise, giving the bread its characteristic light texture.

yoga — a spiritual discipline meant for linking one’s consciousness with the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa.

yoga — Spiritual discipline to link oneself with the Supreme. There are various kinds of yoga, including karma-yoga (the offering of the fruits of one’s work for the pleasure of the Supreme), jñāna-yoga (the cultivation of spiritual knowledge of the soul and Supersoul), aṣṭāṅga-yoga (the eightfold process of meditation taught by Patanjali), and bhakti-yoga (pure devotional service to the Personality of Godhead).

yoga-mārga — the path of developing mystic powers.

Yoga-māyā — the internal, spiritual energy of the Supreme Lord, to which the external energy, mahā-mayā, is subordinate, and which hides Him from non devotees..

Yoga-nidrā — mystic slumber in which Mahā-Viṣṇu creates universes.

yoga-nidrā — The mystic slumber of Lord Viṣṇu.

yoga-siddhis — mystic perfections; mystic powers.

Yogamāyā — (Mahāyoga) The aspect of Kṛṣṇa’s personal energy who enhances His loving pastimes with His devotees by putting the devotees in benign illusion, making them forget that He is God. When Kṛṣṇa descended to earth, Yogamāyā appeared as His sister, Subhadrā. Mahāmāyā, the material energy of illusion, is her partial expansion.

yogarudha — the highest stage of yoga.

yogarurukṣa — the beginning stage of yoga.

Yogendras — nine devotee sons of Ṛṣabhadeva.

Yogeśvara — the supreme master of all mystic powers, Kṛṣṇa.

yogeśvaras — Masters of yoga practice.

yogī — a transcendentalist who practices one of the many authorized forms of yoga, or processes of spiritual purification; those who practice the eight-fold mystic yoga process to gain mystic siddhis or Paramātmā realization.

yogi — A practitioner of yoga.

yogurt — this versatile and healthful cultured dairy product is a staple food found in many cuisines of the world. Its pleasantly tangy flavour and smooth, refreshing texture give it great appeal.

yojana — a standard Vedic measurement equal to eight miles.

yojana — A distance of about eight miles.

yuddha — the Sanskrit word for war.

Yudhāmanyu — a prince of Pāñcāla. He fought on the side of the Pāṇḍavas and was killed on the last night of the battle when Aśvatthāmā entered his tent severed his head.

Yudhiṣṭhira — the eldest of the Pāṇḍavas in the Mahābhārata, and the son of Dharmarāja or Yamarāja, the god of death. It was the dispute over his succession to the throne in India that led to the Battle of Kurukṣetra; he ruled the earth after the Kurukṣetra war.

Yudhiṣṭhira — The eldest of the five sons of Pāṇḍu. He was actually begotten in Pāṇḍu’s wife Kuntī by Yamarāja, the maintainer of religious principles. Thus Yudhiṣṭhira strictly performed religious duties all his life and could never say anything untrue. He was installed as emperor of the world at the end of the Battle of Kurukṣetra.

Yuga — one of the four ages of the universe, which differ in length and which rotate like calendar months. See also: Satya-yuga, Treta-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yuga.

Yuga-avatāra — an incarnation of the Lord in each millennium who prescribes the appropriate process of self-realization for that age.

yuga-dharma — the religion for the age.

yuga-dharma — Specific practice of self-realization recommended in the Vedas for a particular yuga.

Yugala-pirīti — the conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

yugas — Ages in the cycle of universal history. See Kṛta (Satya), Tretā, Dvāpara, and Kali.

yukta-vairāgya — befitting, real renunciation, in which one utilizes everything in the service of the Supreme Lord.

yukta-vairāgya — Real renunciation by utilizing everything in the service of God.

Yuyutsu — a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra by a Vaiśya wife. He took the side of the Pāṇḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war. He lived through the battle and performed the last funeral rites for the slain warriors on the side of the Kurus.




zamindār — a wealthy landowner.