Vedic Sanskrit Glossary - U -
Uccaiḥśravā — a horse born from nectar and considered to be a representative of Kṛṣṇa.
* ucchṛṅkhala — whimsical.
* udāna-vāyu — bodily air which moves upwards and which is controlled by the breathing exercises of the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system.
* udāra — magnanimous.
* udbhāsvara — eternal ecstatic symptoms or bodily transformations which indicate ecstatic emotions in the mind.
Uddhava — One of Kṛṣṇa’s closest friends, His most confidential adviser in Mathurā and Dvārakā.
* Uddhava — a learned disciple of Bṛhaspati and confidential friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa in Dvārakā.
uddīpana — A category of bhāva which means “that which lights the lamp of bhakti.”
* uddīpta — the manifestation in a devotee of five, six or all eight ecstatic symptoms simultaneously.
* udghātyaka — a dancing appearance of a player in drama.
* udvega — the ecstatic symptom of mental agitation.
* ugra-karma — evil activities.
Ugrasena — The Bhoja king of Mathurā whose throne was usurped by his son Kaṁsa but restored by Kṛṣṇa after Kṛṣṇa killed Kaṁsa.
* Ugrasena — the King of the Yadus, and the father of Kaṁsa.
Ugraśravā — See Sūta Gosvāmī.
Ujjvala — The mood of conjugal love with the Lord.
* Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi — a Sanskrit work that describes the complete science of mādhurya-rasa, the conjugal relationship with Lord Kṛṣṇa. It was compiled by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in the sixteenth century.
* Ulūka — the son of Śakuni. He was killed by Sahadeva during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Śalya Parva in Mahābhārata)
* Ulūpī — the wife of Arjuna and the mother of Irāvān.
Umā — Pārvatī, the eternal consort of Lord Śiva.
* Umā — wife of Lord Śiva. See also: Durgā
* umeboshi plum — small,
salted, pickled plum that is used in Japanese cooking. It has a dry,
sour taste and is used to flavour rice and other foods.
* United Provinces of Agra and Oudh — the present Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
* unmāda — craziness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.
Upadeśāmṛta — “The Nectar of Instruction” ; a practical guide to the development of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.
* Upadeśāmṛta — a short Sanskrit work by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī containing important instructions about devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa.
upadesha — instruction.
upādhi — Material designation.
* upādhis — material designations.
* upādhyāya — a teacher who makes a living teaching Sanskrit grammar.
* Upala-bhoga — morning refreshments offered to Lord Jagannātha.
Upananda — Nanda Mahārāja’s brother.
upanayana — A boy’s investiture with the sacred thread, a ceremony that marks the beginning of his Vedic education.
Upaniṣads — The philosophical chapters of the Vedas,
organized into 108 books. They are also called Vedānta, meaning “the
culmination of Vedic knowledge,” and were explained systematically by
Dvaipāyana Vyāsa in his Vedānta-sūtra.
* Upaniṣads — one-hundred and eight Sanskrit treatises that embody the philosophy of the Vedas. Considered the most significant philosophical sections and crest jewels of the Vedas, the Upaniṣads are found in the Āraṇyaka and Brāhmaṇa portions of the Vedas. They are theistic and contain the realizations and teachings of great sages of antiquity.
* Upaplavya — the capital city of King Virāṭa.
Upapurāṇas — Minor Purāṇas.
* uparasa — the first kind of rasābhāsa, occurring when one tastes one kind of mellow and something extra is imposed.
* Upāsanā-kāṇḍa — portions of the Vedas dealing with ceremonies of worship, especially demigod worship.
* upāsya — worshipable.
Upendra — Another name of Lord Vāmana, meaning “the younger brother of Indra.”
* Upendra — Vāmanadeva, who sometimes appears as the younger brother of Indra.
* urad dal — the split dried beans from the plant Phaseolus mungo. Whole urad beans are blackish-gray. Split urad dal are cream-white. Their shape resembles their close relative, split mung dal.
They are used to prepare protein-rich purees and soups in Indian
cuisine. Combined with grains and milk products, their protein value
increases. In South Indian cooking they are fried in ghee or oil for use as nutty seasoning, and soaked and ground into dumplings, pancakes, and fried savouries. Urad dal is available at Indian grocery stores.
Uragas — The Nāga race of divine serpents who live in the subterranean region of Pātāla.
* Urugāya — the name of the Lord meaning “He who is glorified with sublime prayers.”
* Urukrama — the Supreme Lord, who takes wonderful steps (especially as the dwarf-brāhmaṇa incarnation, Vāmanadeva).
* Urvaśī — one
of the heavenly Apsarās. She tried to seduce Arjuna when he was in the
heavenly kingdom. Arjuna refused to satisfy her because he considered
her the mother of the Kuru dynasty having taken Puru for her husband.
Because of Arjuna’s refusal, Urvaśī cursed Arjuna to become a eunuch for
one year. This curse took its effect during last year of exile of the
Pāṇḍavas in the kingdom of Virāṭa; a woman from the heavenly planets who
became enamored of King Purūravā.
Ūrdhva-retasaḥ — "ūrdhva=upwards", "retasa=semen" - The semen flowing upwards, meaning those in the celibasy who are completely detached from sex. - SB 4.8.1 PURPORT: "The system of brahmacarya has been current since the birth of Brahmā. A section of the population, especially male, did not marry at all. Instead of allowing their semen to be driven downwards, they used to lift the semen up to the brain. They are called ūrdhva-retasaḥ, those who lift up. Semen is so important that if, by the yogic process, one can lift the semen up to the brain, he can perform wonderful work—one’s memory is enabled to act very swiftly, and the duration of life is increased. Yogīs can thus perform all kinds of austerity with steadiness and be elevated to the highest perfectional stage, even to the spiritual world. Vivid examples of brahmacārīs who accepted this principle of life are the four sages Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanātana and Sanat-kumāra, as well as Nārada and others."
Ūrdhva-puṇḍra — means the vaishnava tilaka on the forehead of devotees "going upwards".
Ūrdhvaga — one of the ten sons of Kṛṣṇa with his wife Lakṣmaṇā, the daughter of the king of Madras province.
Ūṣā — The daughter of the demon Bāṇa who fell in love with Kṛṣṇa’s grandson Aniruddha.
* ūti — the urge for creation that is the cause of all inventions.
* Utkala — the eldest son of Dhruva Mahārāja.
utsāha — Enthusiasm.
utsāha-mayī — Lit., “false enthusiasm.” Self confidence based on insufficient realization.
uttama — Topmost or highest.
* Uttama — the brother of Dhruva Mahārāja.
uttama-adhikārī — A topmost devotee.
* uttama-adhikārī — a first-class devotee who is expert in Vedic literature and has full faith in the Supreme Lord; he can deliver the whole world.
Uttamaḥśloka — A name of Kṛṣṇa meaning “He who is praised with transcendental song or poetry.”
* Uttamaśloka — the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, who is worshiped by select poetry.
* Uttamaujas — a
prince of Pā˝cāla, and a valiant warrior during the Kurukṣetra battle.
He was killed by Aśvatthāmā while in his bed during the last night of
the Kurukṣetra war.
* Uttānapāda — the king who was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu and the father of Dhruva Mahārāja.
Uttarā — King
Virāṭa’s daughter, the wife of Arjuna’s son Abhimanyu. Kṛṣṇa entered
her womb to save her son, Parīkāit, the last heir to the Kuru throne.
* Uttarā — the
daughter of King Virāṭa and the wife of Abhimanyu. Virāṭa first wanted
Arjuna to marry his daughter, but Arjuna declined and said that his son,
Abhimanyu, should marry her. Uttarā became the mother of King Parīkṣit.
* Uttara — a
son of King Virāṭa. He was afraid to confront the Kurus when they stole
the cows from his father’s kingdom. Arjuna revealed his disguise to
this prince and then single-handedly fought with the Kauravas and
defeated them all. Uttara was killed in the first day’s fighting at
Kurukṣetra by Śalya.